Muhyuddeen Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani (RA)
The Holy Mazar Sharif of The Great Sufi Saint GaosePak MuhiUddeen Abdul Qadir Jilani (RA) of Baghdad By Side Osman Noormuhammad
The Great Sufi Saint Founder of Qaderia Sufi Order “Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani (R)”
He is Hassani and Hussaini:
The most universally acclaimed saint of all times and the most celebrated, in all the aalameen (worlds), among jinn and men as well as among the arwaah (souls) and the malaika (angels), the beloved of AllahTa’ala who throughout history has been showered the titles of muhyudeen (reviver of faith), qutbRabbani and ghauth-al-a’zam (the greatest helper), Sayyidi wa Imami Shaykh-ul-AkbarAbu Mohammad Abdul Qadir Jilani, Radhu Allahu Anh was born in Ramadan 470 A.H/1077 CE in Jilan, Persia. His father’s name was Abu Salih, a man of taqwa (piety) and a direct descendant of Hazrat Imam Hassan ibn Ali Rady Allahu Anh. His mother Ummul-Khair Fatima was a saintly daughter of a saintly father Shaykh Abdullah Sawma’ee who was a direct descendant of Hazrat Imam Hussain ibn Ali Rady Allahu Anh.
Thus Muhyudeen Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani (PBUH) was both Hasani and Husaini, a descendant of the Holy Prophet, Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam. For this reason, the Sindhis for example, lovingly call him “putarmithe mahboob jo” (the blessed son of the sweet beloved Holy Prophet), Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam.
Yaa Hayyu Yaa Hayyu Yaa Qayyum
Yaa Hayyu Yaa Hayyu Yaa Qayyum
He Reached the Status of Siddiqeen:
The Holy Prophet Mohammad Mustafa Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam is the last Prophet, there is no prophet after him. But people can still aspire to spiritual progress, acquire taqwa (piety) and saintliness and become Awliya Allah (friends of Allah). And the highest spiritual state after Ambiya (prophets), belongs to the Siddiqeen (the truthful) that is why the Holy Prophet taught us to make the dua: Allahummaj ‘alna min-as-Siddiqeen (O Allah make us among the truthful). Well, Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani Rady Allahu Anh manifested to the world that he ranked among the siddiqeen at the ripe age of 18. At that age, his thirst for knowledge and eagerness for the company of the Awliya Allah took him to the city of Baghdad.
It is related that as he was about to leave home on this momentous journey, his widowed mother sewed forty gold coins inside his coat as part of his inheritance, and as parting advice told him to be forever truthful. The caravan with whom he was travelling had gone as far as Hamadan when it was attacked by a gang of robbers. In the course of their loot, one of the robbers asked him whether he had anything with him and he truthfully replied that he had forty gold coins sewn in his coat. The robber obviously thought he was joking and narrated this incident to his chief who decided to come and see this young man. When his coat was torn open, sure enough there were forty gold coins. The gang leader was astounded. He asked Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani as to why he revealed this when he could have very well kept it secret. Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani told him that his mother had advised him not to lie and he was duty bound to obey his mother, Hearing this, the gang leader was overpowered with remorse, repented, accepted Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani as his Shaykh and so did all his followers and they went on to acquire awliayah (sainthood) themselves. This is how Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani came to be ranked among the Siddiqeen. Allahummaj ‘alna min-as-Siddiqeen, Aameen Yaa Rabbal ‘Aalameen.
Sayyid Hajji Abdul Raheem Bin Sayyid Muhammad Ismail Shirazi has captured the essence of this incident most beautifully in the following verses of his Urdu poem on the Gauth-al-A’zam:
“Choron pay tum nay kar kay tawajjoh Abdaal banaaya ‘aali shaan Yaa Gauth-al-A’zam ajab tumhaaree shaan”
Focusing your spiritual glance at the thieves You turned them into great saints O, the great helper, and your stature is truly astounding (Gulzare Tayyiba, vol 3, p 18)
Yaa Hayyu Yaa Hayyu Yaa Qayyum
Yaa Hayyu Yaa Hayyu Yaa Qayyum
Sharia, Tariqa and Haqeeqi Ma’rifa
In matters of Shariah (sacred Muslim law), Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani Rady Allahu Anh followed the Hanbal Madh-hab (school of sacred Muslim law) but was an authority on the Shafi-i-Madh-hab as well, and a chief exponent of the Ahl us-Sunnah wal Jama’ah (the people who follow the Tasbih of the Holy Prophet and the Jama’ah of his blessed companions). The way to draw nearer to Allah Ta’ala is through additional voluntary prayers day and night, through constant remembrance (Zikr), unceasing salawaat (Durood) on the Holy Prophet Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam, Sunnah fasting, charity, zuhd (abstinence) and juhd (exertion in the way of Allah Ta’ala) as exemplified by the Holy Prophet himself. This then is the tariqa (spiritual path leading to Allah Ta’ala) which is rooted in sharia (sacred Muslim Law).
A Shaykh, musk-scented in shariah, tariqa and haqeeqi-ma’rifa (knowledge of Allah Ta’ala) is able to ascertain the spiritual level of a mureed (disciple) and can assign additional awraad and azkaar (voluntary prayers) to be performed to attain spiritual progress. Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani learned tariqa at the hands of Shaykh Hammad Bin Muslim al-Dabbas, Rahmatullahi alaih. Traditionally when someone is appointed a Calipha of a Shaykh in tariqa, he is given a khirqa. Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani was bestowed the khirqa by ShaykhQadi Abi Said al-Mukhrami, Rahmatullahi alaih.
The tariqa followed by Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani Rady Allahu Anh came to be called after him the Qadiriyya tariqa and it came to be universally accepted as a divinely-guided path to spiritual progress through zikr of Allah to polish one’s heart of all evil, to lead a virtuous life, to attain the love of the Holy Prophet, Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam, the love of the Sahabah (companions) and the Ahle Bayt (the Prophet’s blessed household), the love of the awliya (saints), and to follow the sharia (sacred Muslim law) according to the teachings of any one of the four Imams of madh-hab, that is Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam Shafi-i, Imam Malik and Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal, may Allah Ta’ala be pleased with them all.
Any tariqa has a silsila or spiritual chain linking the teachings of the Shaykh to the teachings of Rasulullah Sallallahu aliahi wa Sallam. The spiritual genealogy of Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani RadyAllahu Anh is traced back to the Holy Prophet as follows:
Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani, disciple of
Shaykh Qadi Abi Said Ali Mubarak al-Mukhrami,
disciple of Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Ahmad Qareshi al-Hankari,
disciple of Shaykh Abu Farah Muhammad Yusuf Tartusi,
disciple of Shaykh Raziuddin Abul Fazl Abdul Wahid Abdul Aziz,
disciple of Shaykh Abu Bakr Abdullah Shibli,
disciple of Shaykh Abul Qasim Junaid of Bagdad,
disciple of Shaykh Abul Hasan Siri Saqti,
disciple of Shaykh Maroof Al-Karkhi,
disciple of Shaykh Sulaiman Dawood Tai,
disciple of Shaykh Habib ul Ajami,
disciple of Shaykh Hasan al-Basri,
disciple of Sayyidina Ali ibn Abi Talib, Calipha of
Sayyidina Muhammad ibn Abdillah, Nurin-min-Nurillah,
Allahumma Salli wa Sallim wa baarik alaih.
The names in this silsila (spiritual chain) are given in the Tawassul of Qadiriyya in the kitab Abdul Qadir Fee Eedahit tasawwuf compiled by Nuriddeen ibn Shaykh Husain Mahmud al-Ghasani as well as in the biography of the Shaykh by Dr. Zahurul Hasan Sharib.
Yaa Hayyu Yaa Hayyu Yaa Qayyum.
Yaa Hayyu Yaa Hayyu Yaa Qayyum
Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani Rady Allahu Anh taught Muslims and preached to non-Muslims in Baghdad. His Khutbas (sermons) and Nasiha (advice) have been compiled and handed down through centuries as classics of Muslim spirituality.
His major spiritual works in the field are:
- Sirr al-asrar (The secret of secrets).
- Futuh al-ghayb (Revelations of the Unseen).
- Ghunyat al-talibeen (Wealth for Seekers).
- Al-Fat’hu Rabbani (The Endowment of Divine Grace).
Besides the Holy Quran Kareem and Hadith Shareef, these are required minimum reading for someone who aspires to be an aalim (learned). As we read his masterpieces, we are struck by the fact that his style of expression is different from that of any other Shaykh, aalim or wali. He is so much saturated with the spiritual power of Tawheed that his exposition and its flow has a spiritually confident personality all its own so that anyone who reads his khutbas spontaneously admits that he is the qutb-al-aqtaab, the Shaykh-ul-Mashaaikh, the Gauth-alA’zam and much more…. a Shaykh who epitomized mujaddidiyya (faith revival) and Awliyah (sainthood).
“Yaa Hayyu Yaa Hayyu Yaa Qayyum
Yaa Hayyu Yaa Hayyu Yaa Qayyum”
Azkaar, Salawaat and Qasida
The Qadiriyya tariqa is a tariqa of Zikrullah, remembrance of Allah. The plural of Zikr is azkaar. The azkaar and awraad (daily voluntary prayers) of Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani Rady Allahu Anh have been compiled in many kitaabs (religious books), one of which is Fuyudhaatur-Rabbaniyya, compiled by al-Hajj Ismail Ibn Sayyid Muhammad Sa’eed Al-Qadiri. It gives the awraad and azkaar of Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani for each day of the week as well as for various special occasions.
Then we have the salawaat (durood) on the Holy Prophet Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam recited by the Gauth-al-A’zam and we have to read Fuyudhaatur-Rabbaniyya as well as his major classics to appreciate how profuse Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani was in sending salawaat and salaam on the Holy Prophet, Allahumma salli wa sallim alaih. His most famous salaat is called As-Salatu Gauthiya after him while he also recited As-Salatul Kubra (The big salaat) and kibritil ahmar (the philosopher’s stone). Kibritil ahmar is given in both Fuyudhaatur-Rabbaniyya as well as in Miskaatus-Salawaat of Mawlana Muhammad Elias Burney. “The pholosopher’s stone” means something very rare to find.
His emphasis in immersing yourself in the Asma Allah-ul-Husna (the most Beautiful Names of Allah Ta’ala) until they run through your veins is breathtaking. He has woven a qasida (hymn) of 63 verses around this Asma-ul-Husna whose opening verses are:
“Shara’tu Bi Tawheedil Ilahi Mubasmilaa
Sa Akhtimu Bi-dh-dhikril Hameedi Mujammila
Wa Ash-Hadu Annallah Laa Rabba Ghairuhu
Tanazzaha ‘an Hasril Uquli Takammulaa”
(Transliteration from Fuyudhaatur-Rabbaniyya, p 52)
“I start the Tawheed of Allah with Bismillah.
I will finish with the Zikr of Allah, the Most Beautiful.
And I bear witness that there is no Lord other than Allah.
Glorified is He, beyond human understanding, Most Perfect.”
And his qasida Gauthiya is universally popular. It is chanted from Rabat to Lahor and from Mombasa to Toronto. Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani Rady Allahu Anh passed away on 11 Rabi-ul-Akhir 561 A.H/1166 C.E, at the age of 91. Those in the Qadiriyya tariqa recite Holy Quran Kareem and do Zikr on that night. In the Indian sub-continent, it is called Gyaarween shareef, or the blessed eleventh night of the month. Qasida Gauthiya is also recited. In it, ShaykhAbdul Qadir Jilani gives us some of the secrets of his own spiritual stature. Consider the spiritual force with which the opening lines burst upon you:
“Saqaanil hubbu kaasaatil wisaalee
Faqultu likhamratee nahwee ta’aalee”
When we read the classics of Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani Rady Allahu Anh like Sirr al-asrar, Futuh al-ghayb, Ghunyat al-talibin, Al-Fat’hu Rabbani, and qasida Gauthiya and recite the awraad and salawaat that he recited, we begin to understand why he is considered to be the Gauthul A’zam (greatest saint). But the initiate sometimes wonders why he revealed so many spiritual secrets when most other Shaykhs are reticent. To answer that question, we will need to turn to Sayyidi wa Imami Mawlana Abdullah ibn Alawi al-Haddad, Rady Allahu Anh. In Gifts for the Seeker, he explains that Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani, Rady Allahu Anh had received permission to divulge these spiritual secrets-“for the man who receives such permission is under an order which he can but obey-and the secret of the permission granted in such matters is itself one that cannot be divulged.” (Gifts for the Seeker, translation by Dr. Mostafa al-Badawi, p.11).
“Yaa Hayyu Yaa Hayyu Yaa Qayyum
Yaa Hayyu Yaa Hayyu Yaa Qayyum”
Spread of Islam through Sufi Saints
Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani, Rady Allahu Anh as the model of a Sufi saint, through his nasiha, azkaar and salawaat, through giving a living reality to Islam, in his complete surrender to the Will of Allah and in his showing of tawakkul (trust in Allah) and through his teachings and preaching converted more than five thousand Jews and Christians to Islam while more than a hundred thousand ruffians, outlaws, murderers, thieves and bandits repented and became devout Muslims and gentle dervishes, explains Shaykh Tosun Bayrak alJerrahi al-Halveti in his Introduction to Sirr al-asrar, p xxxi. And the halaqa of Zikr (Zikr congregations) which he instituted have continued to attract millions of people to Islam through centuries and will continue to do so, Insha-Allah, till the Day of Judgement, Aameen.
A few examples suffice to illustrate this. The first example is that of Mawlana Mu’eenuddin Chishti Rahmatullahi alaih who acknowledged Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani as his Shaykh and spread Islam in India among the Hindus. He achieved such a high spiritual stature that he is called Sultanul Hind (the sultan of saints in the Indian sub-continent) and all the saints in that region are under his banner while he is under the banner of the Gauth-al-A’zam. In the same way Shaykh Uways ibn Muhammad Rahmatullahi alaih of Somalia became a Calipha in Tariqatul Qadiriyya at the shrine of Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani in Baghdad and spread Islam in the whole of Eastern Africa through congregations of Zikr. And Shaykh Hamzah Fansuri, considered to be the greatest saint in Indonesia and Malaysia proudly proclaimed that he learned Islam from Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani.
It can truly be said that the mureedeen and muhibbeen (loving disciples) of Shaykh barakaat Abdul Qadir Jilani Rady Allahu Anh have spread Islam throughout the world through Zikr. The (blessings) of zikr are truly unending. May Allah Ta’ala make us among the Zaakireen, Aameen.
And the granting of awliyah (the stature of a saint) by Allah Ta’ala to the Zaakireen (those who remember Him), aabideen (those who worship Him) and muhibbeen (those who love the Holy Prophet) is in all instances mediated by the Holy Prophet Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam, Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani and one’s own Shaykh. After all the awliya and the ulama (learned) are the Caliphatullah, vicegerents of Allah. And one must always aspire to awliayah so that one becomes ‘Aarif Billah (knower of Allah). Allahummaj ‘alna minal ‘aarifeen, Aameen Yaa Rabbal Aalameen.
“Yaa Hayyu Yaa Hayyu Yaa Qayyum
Yaa Hayyu Yaa Hayyu Yaa Qayyum”
His Aqeeda: His aqeeda (beliefs) was that of the Ahl us-Sunnah wal Jam’ah based on the Holy Quran, and the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam. All the Sufi Saints through centuries have expounded on and lived by this aqeeda. Its cornerstone is Tawheed (Unity of Allah), its nurturing is with Asma ul Husna and Ishq (love) of the Holy Prophet; its daily life is governed by shariah (sacred Muslim law); its growth and spread is through nasiha (good advice), zikr of Allah Ta’ala and salawaat and salaam on the Holy Prophet, Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam, its peak is jihad and its ultimate is Fana Fillah (annihilation of oneself in the Love of Allah Ta’ala) after which Allah Ta’ala showers you with Baqa Billah (spiritual life everlasting) in His Ridha (pleasure).
So you start with Ridhal Waalidain (in the pleasure of your parents) and end with Ridhallah (pleasure of Allah Subhanahu WA Ta’ala). And the Sahabah (companions) of the Holy Prophet are referred to as Rady Allahu Anhum WA Radhu Anh (Allah is well pleased with them and they are pleased with Him). And according to Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani, his own position is equal to the dust under the feet of the Sahabah. If that is the case, what of the stature of the blessed Sahabah of the Holy Prophet Sallallahu alaihi WA Sallam? Their spiritual stature derives from the fact that they were blessed with the opportunity of beholding the Holy Prophet with the eyes of imaan (faith). That being the case how can anyone be capable enough to explain in full the sifat (attributes) of Mohammad-e-Arabi, Rasule-Rabbil Aalameen, and Rahmatullil Aalameen. Only Allah Rabbul Izzat is well aware of what he bestowed on His beloved Prophet, Allahumma Salli WA sallim alaih.
“Yaa Hayyu Yaa Hayyu Yaa Qayyum
Yaa Hayyu Yaa Hayyu Yaa Qayyum”
His Daily Life and Teachings of Imam
Shihabuddeen Umar Bin Muhammad Suhrawardi Rahmatullahi alaih in his universally acclaimed classic Awariful Ma’arif refers to Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani as “Our Shaykh”. He writes that according to Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani, the Shaykh has to cultivate these qualities:
“Of Allah Rabbul Izzat (to cover up and forgive)
Of Sayyidina Mohammad Mustafa Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam (to intercede and to accompany)
Of Sayydina AliRady Allahu Anh (to be knowing and brave)”
(Awariful Ma’arif, translated by Wilberforce Clarke, p 162)
Imam Ibn Kathir Rahmatullahi alaih described the admonitions of Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani saying: “He enjoined the people to do what is good and abstain from what is evil. His admonitions addressed caliphs, ministers, and people in authority, judges, companions and the masses. Standing on the pulpits of the mosques, he reprimanded them in the presence of witnesses as well as during his public addresses. He disavowed the civil appointment of any unjust person, chose Allah’s blessings over anyone else’s wrath, and was not affected by any reproach.”
In his book Zail Tabaqat Al-Hanabila, Ibn Rajab quoted Shaykh Muwaffaq Al-Deen, author of the book Al-Maghni, saying: “I have never heard of anyone having as many noble deeds and miraculous blessings (Karamat) as those attributed to Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani”. Dr. Muhammad Haroon of the Raza Academy has described this in detail in “The World Importance of Ghaus al Azam Hazrat Sheikh Muhyiddin Abdul Qadir Jilani”. To gain baraka (blessings), let us at this juncture recall one of these miracles. It is related that as it was cloudy, the new moon of Ramadan had not been sighted and people were confused whether or not to fast the next day. They came to Ummal-Khayr and asked if the child had taken food that day. As he had not, they surmised that the fast had begun. His mother relates; “My son ‘Abdul Qadir was born in the month of Ramadan. No matter how hard I tried he refused to suckle in the daytime. Throughout his infancy he would never take food during the month of fasting.” (Sirr al-asrar, Introduction by Shaykh Tosun al-Jerrahi al-Halveti, p xiii)
Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani, Rady Allahu Anh had four wives, each a model of virtue and devoted to him. He had forty-nine children, twenty-seven sons and twenty-two daughters. Four of his sons, Shaykh Abdul Wahhab, Shaykh Isa, Shaykh Abdul Razzaq and Shaykh Musa became famous for their education and learning. This is how Sheikh Tosun al-Halveti explains about the daily life of Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani, Rady Allahu Anh: “He himself had given all of himself to Allah. His nights passed with little or no sleep in secluded prayer and meditation. He spent his days like a true follower of the Prophet in the service of humanity. Three times a week he would deliver public sermons to thousands of people. Every day in the morning and the afternoon he gave lessons in Holy Quranic commentary, Prophetic traditions, theology, religious law and Sufism. He spent the time after the midday prayer giving advice and consultation to people, whether beggars or kings, who would come from all parts of the world. Before sunset prayers, rain or shine, he took to the streets to distribute bread among the poor. As he spent all his days in fasting he would eat only once a day, after sunset prayer, and never alone. His servants would stand at his door asking passers-by if they were hungry, so that they could share his table.” (Sirr al-Asrar, p XLIV)
“Yaa Hayyu Yaa Hayyu Yaa Qayyum
Yaa Hayyu Yaa Hayyu Yaa Qayyum”
Qasaid on the Shaykh:
Given these realities of history, is it any wonder then to find that more qasaid (poems) have been written in praise of Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani Rady Allahu Anh than on any other saint? Gulzare Tayyiba in Urdu for example contains 17 poems in his honour while the Diwan (in Arabic) in Taraqatul Qadiriyya has 27. In a short article like this, it is not possible to do full justice to all the poetry in honour of the Shaykh. It suffices to give a sprinkling from Champay Dhee Bootee of Sultan Arifeen ShaykhSultan Bahu in Punjabi, from the poetry of Shaykh Hamzah Fanzuri of Indonesia in Malay, from the salaam of Imam Ahmed Raza Khan in Urdu and from the Diwan in Tariqatul Qadiriyya in Arabic, in that order.
We begin with the translations of the abyaat (couplets) of Sultan Bahu in Champay Dhee Bootee, a classic in Kalaame Ma’rifat:
“Talib Gauthul A’zam waalay
Shale kadhe na howan pandhe hoo
Jendhe andhar ishq dhee ratte
Rayn sadha kur landhe hoo
Jenun shawq dha howay
Lay khushyan nit andhe hoo
Dhono jahan naseeb tunhande Bahu
Jere zati alam kamadhe hoo”
Followers of the Gauthul A’zam:
“Would God, they are never ill
Those who have one grain of loving,
Ever are in pang and chill.
Lured by chances of a meeting,
Hopeful in their joyous drill”
Lucky in both worlds are Bahu!
Lover’s who gain Allah’s Will.
(Sultan Bahu, Champay Dhee Bootee, (The Jasmine Plant), p 33)
(Translation by Maqbool Elahi, The Abyat of Sultan Bahu, p 103)
Next, let us savour the following four lines in Malay form Shaykh Hamzah Fansuri as given in Syed Naguib al-Attas’ Some Aspects of Sufism as Understood and Practiced Among the Malays, p 22
“Hamzah nin asalnya Fansuri
Mendapat wujud ditanah Shahar Nawi
Beroleh Caliphate ilmu yang ali /
Daripada Abdul Qadir Sayyid Jilani”
“I Hamzah who am of Fansur a son, At Shahar Nawi my being have won
The knowledge sublime I acquired, from one Called Abdul Qadir Sayyid of Jilan.”
A’la Hazrat Imam Ahmed Raza Khan wrote Salaams on the Holy Prophet Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam in which after profuse salutations on the Holy Prophet, he also sent salaams on the AhleBayt and the SahabahRady Allahu Anhum, as well as on the Imams of madh-hab, the awliya and the saleheen, Rahmatullahi alaihim ajma’een.
Consider just two verses from A’la Hazrat on the Gauth-ul-A’zam to appreciate his love for the Shaykh.
“Gauthul A’zam Imam-ut-tuqaa wan-nuqaa
Jalwae Shaane Qudrat pe lakhon salaam
Jis ke mimbar bane gardane awliya
Us qadam ki karamat pe lakhon salaam”
(Hadaiq-i-Bakhsheesh, p 149)
“Gauthul A’zam Imam of saints and the pious
A million salutations on him who was pure by nature
The one for whom the necks of saints became a pulpit
A million salutations on the miracle of his feet”
It is fitting to the end with the chorus of the Qasida in Arabic in the Diwan of Qadiriyya.
“Bi Rasulillahi wal Jilan
Wa Rijaalin Min Bani Adnaan
Salaku Fee Manhajjir-Rahmaan
Bi Rasulillahi Wal Jilan.”
“For the sake of the Holy Prophet and Shaykh Jilani
And those in the tribe of Adnaan
They have treaded the Path of the Merciful Lord
For the sake of the Holy Prophet and Shaykh Jilani”
(O Allah hear our prayers)
Tazkiratul Awliya (the Zikr of the friends of Allah) is truly unending. May Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala forgive us and give us the hidaya (guidance) to live Islam according to the Holy Quran and the Tasbih of Rasulullah, Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam as explained and exemplified by Gauth-ul-A’zamShaykhAbdul Qadir Jilani, Rady Allahu Anh, Aameen Yaa Rabbal Aalameen.
“Yaa Hayyu Yaa Hayyu Yaa Qayyum
Yaa Hayyu Yaa Hayyu Yaa Qayyum.”
Abdul Qadir Jilani (RA) is a direct descendant of Prophet Mohammad (SM) (PBUH) and 17th Direct Spiritual Successor of Prophet Mohammad (SM) (PBUH). Seven Hundred years old Sufi Dynesty, Azimpur Dayera Sharif’s 43rd Spiritual Successor His Eminency Sheikh Shah Sufi Dr. Mohammad Nurul Alam (MA) is maintaining the Qaderia Sufi orders (Tariqa).
The Great Sufi Saint of the Asian Continent
Hazrat Khawaja Mainuddin Chisty (RA)
Dhorgha-e-Azmir Sharif, India
Current Religious Leader Sayed Golam Kibria, Hossein Manzil
On the illustrious list of these great Sufi Saints who preserved the spirit and promoted the cause of Islam by their strict religious devotion and amazing spiritual powers under all sorts of cruel persecution like the holy Prophet himself, the name of Hazrat Khawaja Muinuddin Chishti of Ajmer stands high in perpetual glory. For the spiritual salvation and moral uplift of the people of Hindustan by peaceful means and universal love; In fact, this lonely saint actually changed both the map and the course of Indian history at a crucial period of her destiny not by sword or cannon but by the sweet and melodious spell of his spiritual sway plus unparalleled moral and religious character, a revolution which ushered in quite a new era of peace and prosperity for millions of Indians, and a revolution which the march of history and the present civilization cannot afford to forget in the interests of mutual love and peace for which the people of the world are so intensely thirsting today.
Because mutual goodwill and confidence between man and man and nation and nation are once more rapidly deteriorating, and because the world is searching for a lasting peace against the forces of Satan that have once again raised their monstrous head under the intoxication of new kind of scientific materialism, the teachings of Hazarat Khwaja Munniuddin and Islam must, therefore, be revived in the interests of world peace, as much as other recognized religions.
We are sure, these lessons will prove of immense value in easing the political and religious tensions and restoring the waning faith of man in God and Religion without which there can be no lasting peace in the world.
Life of Sufi
The life of a Sufi is the “life of the spirit” regulated strictly in accordance with Islamic theology and traditions. To attain his first lesson is unshakable belief in the existence of God and unconditional surrender to His will. This entails a strenuous life attended by rigid austerity and self-denial. He has to undergo a course of training in regular prayers and meditation to attain the Divine Knowledge and realization of Truth. This particular knowledge is passed on ‘in secret’ by one Sufi to another having the requisite qualifications i.e. one who does not think evil does not see evil, does not hear evil and does not speak evil. Without this Divine Knowledge, one cannot fathom the hidden mysteries of the Nature and those of the soul. To sum up the whole object of Sufism is to attain the highest spiritual perfection.
A Sufi will be distinguishable from others on account of his detachment from his parents, children, wealth, power, position and comforts. His ignorance vanishes in the effulgence of the ‘Divine Light’ of the most High, the Lord of the entire Universe. In such an ecstatically devotion there is neither pain nor sorrow for him as he is overwhelmingly dedicated to the will of the Almighty God. Thus a Sufi saint is the Spiritual King, far above all temporal kings, disguised in the patched robes of a humble dervish.
Hazrat Khawaja Muinuddin Chisty (May peace of God be upon his soul) was one of the greatest Sufi saints the world has ever known. His spiritual influence and benedictions have been, and are still a perpetually source of inspiration courage and guidance to the afflicted humanity, irrespective of caste creed or religion.
The Sufis are classified into four prominent silsilas (categories) or lines, viz. Qadaria, Chishtia Suhraward and Naqshbandia.
Hazrat Khawaja Muinuddin Chishty belonged to the second ‘silsila’. There is no fundamental difference between these silsilas except in matters of minor details. They are all within the framework of the Islamic law as laid down by the Holy Quran and expounded by Hadith but the rituals applied for obtaining the communion or ‘raza’ of God are different just like the modern Universities where student take different courses for obtaining a particular class of degree. The Chishtia ‘silsila’ does not enjoin any indifferent belief from that of the other Hanafi Sunni Muslims. Their belief is based upon the Holy Quran. A study of the lives of Chishty saints, including Hazrat Khawaja Muinuddin and his spiritual preceptor Hazrat Khwaja Usman Harooni reveals that they preached and held purely Quranic beliefs. According to Shariat, every Chishty saint has to follow the Quranic laws strictly.
The Sufi ‘silsilas’ however, are not sects. They grew up because people went to Sheikhs or ‘murshids’ (religious masters) for spiritual guidance and training who invested those of their disciples whom they regarded as spiritually fit to cater for the spiritual and moral needs of others Traditions, no doubt, grew up differently in different ‘silsilas’. What is common between the various Sufi ‘silsilas’ is confined to few spiritual practices like auraad (verses from Holy Quran) ‘sama’ (audition) certain festivals, institutions like veneration of the shrines, the etiquette of visiting them and the devotion to certain leading personalities of the order. One special features of the Chishtia order, which is particularly observable among the early Chishty saints of India, is their love for all humanity. They sought to inculcate among their followers an attitude of broad sympathy for the common man irrespective of caste, creed or nationality. They stressed more on humanitarian of caste, creed or nationality. They stressed more on humanitarian obligations of Muslims than on any other point. And that is why Khawaja Muinuddin Chishty attracted lakhs of people to the vast circle of his devotees in India in a very short time.
Regulation and Practices
There are certain regulations of Sufism which are called ‘Adraak’ and ‘Ehsas’ in Sufi parlance. They are also known as ‘Arkaan Tasawwuf’ or ‘Arkaan-Baatani’ i.e. the rules and discipline for the acquirement of the hidden wisdom or knowledge. They are divided into the “hidden wisdom” or knowledge. They are divided into the following three categories:
- “Knowledge” i.e. the ‘divine Knowledge’ attainable through the rigid discipline of ‘Shariat’.
- “Amal” i.e. action under the above discipline with unflinching faith and devotion.
- “Haal” i.e. the resulting reaction from ‘Amal’ or the action. A Sufi aspirant’s first important step to act upon the above course is to seek a religious preceptor or ‘murshid’ who should be a practical master of the said Divine Knowledge and its training experience. His preliminary lessons start with
- Liturgical practices and exercises with unswerving devotion to certain Quranic verses which are infused with the Divine Knowledge in order to grasp their spiritual interpretation and values.
- A rigid control over his soul called ‘Nafs’ which starts with renunciation and self-mortification.
Training In Sufism
When a person decided to become a mystic or Sufi, he was expected to go to a Sheikh or Murshid (master) and spend with him as much time as was deemed necessary by the Sheikh for his spiritual development. During this period of apprenticeship which, in most cases, lasted a lifetime the Sheikh used to instruct the disciple to perform mortification (Mujahedas) so as to gain control over his appetitive soul, i.e. ‘Nafs’. This was done by performing service like hewing of wood, drawing of water from the wells and so many other menial services in the Khanqah (the monastery or chapel). Even Hazrat Khawaja Muinuddin Chishty himself had to pass through this hard and rigorous course of probation when he was under training for a period of 20 years with his Pir-o-Murshid (master) Hazrat Khawaja Usman Harooni. Every Sufi saint had to perform these hard services for his ‘Pir’ before achieving the robe of Caliphate (succession).
Stages Of Mysticism
According to the Islamic standard of judgment, the seeker after Truth, as stated above has to pass through many stages before he can actually feel himself in combination with the Truth being the ultimate object. The elementary condition is to have an unshakable faith and a firm resolve in doing or not doing a thing that is termed ‘niyyat’ (intention) in Muslim theology which is followed by repentance and penitence. The next stage is called “Mujaheda” (probation of striving). When it reaches its zenith then the revelation process begins which is known as “Mukashfa” (the uplifting of veil). At this stage the attainments of the saint (or Sufi) are so exquisite that he emerges his identify in the will of God, the creator, and the reactions are visible and affect the code and conduct of human beings. The effort by which each stage is gained is called ‘haal’ (state). It is a state of joy or desire and when the seeker is in this condition he falls into ‘wajd’ (ecstasy).
Basis Of Sufism
Early history of Sufism reveals that this particular branch of Divine knowledge originated and developed under conditions of strict discipline of quietism, seclusion, renunciation and incessant devotion to prayers under the guidance of a ‘Murshid’ or spiritual preceptor. In the popular sense, Sufism is known as mysticism in the West but it is not at par with the conception which the word ‘Sufism’ actually carries in Islamic parlance. One of the advantages of this cult is that its follower speedily discovers all the mysteries of Nature for the benefit of mankind. Its greatest gospel is to Live and Let live’ and to bestow undiscriminating affection upon all mankind. It caters for the real peace and spiritual needs of the people who are generally sick of the material world and seek a spiritual asylum. To be brief, unless one is a God’s chosen man endowed with the inherent natural spark of Divine love, pity and religious devotion, and is also fit for the necessary hard Mujahedas (probation and striving) one cannot become a prefect Sufi.
Brief History Of Sufism
The origin of the term Sufi is rather complex, but in general it signifies one who wears the garment of ”suf” i.e. wool. In the beginning it was a mark of personal penitence though some early Muslims, like Ibn Sirin (died 729 AD) criticized the ascetics for wearing Suf in imitation of Jesus Christ. He said, “I prefer to follow the example of the Prophet who dressed in cotton.” In the second century of Islam a particular group of ascetics of Kufa were generally called al-Sufiya due to their dress. But, by 4th century wearing of woolen garments became the recognized badge of the Sufis of Iraq and hence the term was commonly applied to all Muslim mystics. In the same century, groups of these a sites used to assemble to recite aloud the holy Quran and other religious pieces which practice gradually took on a liturgical character called Zikr evolving into spiritual concerts named Sama (now popularly called Qawwali in India) with their attendant perils of extreme ecstatic nervous.
Gradually a change was coming over the general character of Sufism. Its basis was” fear of God and His wrath to come” with the mystical element of love and adoration. According to a woman saint, Rabia alAdawiya (died 891 AD) The mainspring of mysticism is Love. She said, “Love of God had so absorbed me that neither love nor hate for any other things remains in my heart.”
Sufism In 12th Century
While Imam Ghazali (Departed 1111) and Abul Qasim Al Qashari (Departed 1072) laid the basic foundation of Sufism, it was Ghaoth-ul-Azam, Mahboob Subhani Hazrat Sheikh Abdul Qadar Jilani (PBUH) (Departed 1166) who helped to give it a real practical shape by instituting the famous “Qadaria” silsila of Sufis in Baghdad in the 12th Christian century which did wonders in raising the cult at Sufism to a glorious pitch in the succeeding generations. Sufism under Hazrat Jilani’s spiritual and moral spell created a marvelous revolution which brought the whole of Afghanistan and its adjoining parts in Islamic fold in a very short time. This was one of the greatest miracles of Sufism in the history of Islam at a very crucial period. The number of converts after Hazrat Jilani’s every preaching meeting often exceeded 70,000 necessitating the employment of as many as 400 writers for the registration of these converts. Other Sufi saints of this century were Sheikh Najeebuddin Abul Qahir Suhrawardy, Sheikh Akbar mohiuddin Ibn Arabi (1156 – 1240) and Hazrat Sheikh Shahabuddin Suhrawardy (1144-1234), the last named being the founder of another famous “Suhrawardia” silsila which Sheikh Saadi embraced in his later years of life. Their services to the cause of Islam proved exceedingly invaluable and their innumerable writings and speeches helped to rejuvenate the waning spirit of Islam, serving the cause of Sufism itself as a guiding star for all future generations.
Doctrine Of Sufism And Its Need
After the departure of the Prophet the overpowering influence of his religion and sacred traditions dominated the lives of his succeeding descendants and the Caliphs. During the early period of Islam there was no necessity of any new cult like Sufism. But, as time passed on a revival of the Islamic influence was deemed necessary and Sufism took it up in right earnest. The term Sufism denotes nothing but a direct interpretation of the cardinal principles of Islam and certain spiritual practices to be observed in this process. Its originator Abu Ishaq Shami was the first Sufi who preached this cult which was in conformity with all the basic principles of Islam. Wealth Despised One of the cardinal principles of the followers of Sufism is the hate of all wealth pomp and show. All great Sufis have always therefore refused to accept any money or presents from any quarters whatever, and they never went to the glittering courts of any monarch which made them bold, selfless and independent of all secularism, thus distinguishing them from the class of the Ulama, who so often succumbed to these temptations. On the contrary, if any ruler or rich person sought an interview with them they either refused it flatly or gave them illuminating sermons, bluntly reminding them of their misdeeds and instructing them to realise and follow their duties and responsibilities to the cause of Islam and the Holy Prophet’s Shariat. Once Calipha Abu Muzaffar Yusuf of Baghdad approached Hazrat Abdul Qadir Jilani (PBUH) for a blissful advice with a present of 10 bags of gold mohurs; This great Sufi saint contemptuously refused to accept the money but when the Calipha insisted upon its acceptance he picked up two of the bags one in each hand, and squeezed them. And as he did so human blood flowed out of them! The great saint said: “Abu Muzaffar, don’t you feel shame in offering me this blood of the poor people?” The Calipha was dumbfounded and went away in a shameful disgust.
During the 13th century AD Sufism had gained greater popularity among the masses as the result of the persistent efforts of the above named Sufi saint. Under the rule of the Ummayads and the Abbassides, secularism had usurped the real spirit of Islam and had economic, political and social fabric of Islam to pieces resulting in the ultimate downfall of their power itself. Baghdad, once a flourishing capital, was in the grip of debasing frivolities and revelry. Unbalanced secularism had caused unprecedented pillage, arson, murder and all round destruction at the hands of Mongols and Tartars. Although this condition was generally attributed to the intruders’ invasions but as a matter of fact it was primarily due to the deterioration of the spiritual and moral character of the Muslims from top to bottom.
Attendance At Shrine When these Sufi saints left this world their devotees put up impressive buildings over their tombs (Mazaars) most of which are attractive monuments of architectural beauty and subdued oriental splendour where Muslims, Hindus, Parsis, Sikhs, and their beneficiaries pay loving homage to their immortal glory all the year round, and receive all sorts of benedictions even to this day. On the occasions of their death anniversaries, which are called Urs, the gatherings in many cases run from thousands to lakhs, according to the popularity of the saint. Religious ceremonies are performed on these occasions and the poor and the needy are fed liberally. Of the numerous Sufi saints of India, Hazrat Khawaja Muinuddin Chisty of Ajmer, (the founder of Sufism in this country) Hazrat Makhdoom Allauddin Saabir of Kalyar and Hazrat Baba Fariduddin Ganj Shakar of Pak Patan are the most celebrated. But each Indian province from North to South and East to West has one or more monumental shrines of its own Sufi saints whose benedictions have left an impressive mark upon the people of those parts and whose blessings they still enjoy year after year.
Divine Love The next important feature of Sufi belief was divine love. From the time of Rabia Al-Adawiya (departed 801 AD). It had become the mainstream of Sufism while in India it had become the dominant feature of the popular Bhakti movement. Love they said was both the causes as well as the effect of gnosis. A person was likely to achieve gnosis as a result of divine blessing only when he had devotion for God. While a person who had achieved gnosis could not help being overwhelmed and overpowered by cosmic emotion (jazba) and divine love. Love, according to them was emotive force of life in fact raison d’être. This powerful emotion dominated every thought or sentiment, contemplative life, theology, ritual thought of heaven and hell and all else. “The heart of a mystics is a blazing furnace of love which burns and destroys everything that comes into it because no fire is stronger than the fire of love”, says Khawaja Muinuddin Chishty. Love implied an illuminating life a state of continued communion with Reality (haal). The object of life was indifferently described as apologetic vision (sometimes used in spiritual sense at others in a physical sense), nearness to God, annihilation (fana), everlasting life in God (baqa) and ultimately absorption or union (wassail). It was only on the achieves tranquility by falling into the sea? Thus when the lover finds the beloved he no longer wails.”
The natural outcome of such an outlook was a religion of ecstatic fervour and intoxication (Sukr). Such an attitude of mind could best be produced by and then find satisfaction in liturgical practices (AzkaarZikr-e-khafi, zikr-e-jail), spiritual concerts or audition (sama), and other forms of auto hypnosis. Because of the efforts of Khawaja Qutubuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki, Sufi Hameeduddin Nagauri and Sheikh Nizamuddin Auliya of Delhi, ‘sama’ became a cranial feature of the Chishty silsila and brought it in occasional conflicts with the orthodox Ulama.
The mystic belief in gnosis and love is usually accompanied by characteristic ethics. The Sufis had fully followed and systematized certain ethical concepts before Islam came to India. The Indian Sufism merely reiterated these beliefs although there was difference in the degree of emphasis. The basis of the Sufi attitude is that the Veil which hides Reality from mankind is that of Bashariyat, (creature hood). The nature of man consists of sensual, intellectual and spiritual features. Intellect, according to them performed a restricted function. The central pivot of spiritual life was the Qalb (heart) or the Rooh (soul). They were regarded as ethereal in nature and hence capable of communion with God. This function however could never be performed until the heart was purified of the dirt of sensual or lower self called in Sufi terminology the nafs (appetitive soul). The struggle against nafs regarded as wholly evil, therefore, became one of the main concerns of the Sufis. This implied an outlook of renunciation, penitence, asceticism, poverty, self-mortification and quietism-in short, other worldliness. This other worldliness was never interpreted strictly and the Chishty product recommended more an outlook of another-worldliness than actually going away from society.
The idea among the nobler minds in the world of Islam, that there is a deeper and more inward sense in the words of the Holy Quran arose not from the wish to escape from the rigour of ‘ texts and dogmas’, but from a profound conviction that those words mean more, not less than the popular expounders supposed them to convey. This conviction combined with a deep feeling of Divine pervasion, a feeling originating from and in perfect accordance with the teachings of the Holy Quran and the instruction of the Prophet led to the development among the Muslims of that contemplative idealistic philosophy which has received the name of Sufism. The appeal of which among the Mohammadans was probably assisted by the prevalence of Neo-Platonic ideas. Imam-al-Ghazzali in the East and Ibn Tufail in the West were the two great representatives of mysticism among the Muslims.
Ulema – Sufi Clash
At first the leaders of mysticism were supposed to be the Ulema or orthodox religious teachers but by the end of 3rd century they were replaced mostly by middle classes, specially from the mixed half Persian and half Arabian population of Baghdad, who followed Sufism. Against the political revolutionary aims of Shia’ite propagandists the Ulema protested vehemently. Their programme of reform included the awakening of religious conscience of individuals and the spiritual revival of the social organisation of the community. These social implications were reinforced by the labors of Sufis in preaching and converting, firstly members of their own class or followers and secondly carrying on their missionary work for Islam in other distant lands. For all times and in all countries these Sufi ascetics were the most active and powerful propagandists of Islam and it was none but Hazrat Khawaja Muinuddin Chishty of Sanjar who introduce the Chishtia silsila (order) of Sufis in India and did such a wonderful service to the cause of Islam.
For the above reasons the orthodox Ulema began to suspect the new social implications of the Sufi movement in Islam and a rift seemed to be widening between Sufism and orthodoxy. Serious attempts were made to silence the Sufis and on failure an example of punishment was set of one prominent Sufi Mansur al-Hallaj, who was charged with heresy in having identified himself with God and was cruelty executed in the beginning of the 4th century. This punishment was not inflicted by any violent fanatics but by pious upholders of the ancient Faith like the Good Wazir’ Ale-ibn-Isa. Repression however proved futile and the Sufi movement continued firmly based as it was on both the open and ‘secret’ teachings of Quran and the moral standards of Islam. Despite the adverse views of the learned layers, the tendency towards the neglect of the ritual prescriptions and the outside influence clashing with the traditional outlook of Islam the strength of Sufism lay in the satisfaction which it gave to the religious instincts of the people, instincts which were chilled or starved by the rigid and impersonal teachings of orthodox Ulema but which found more relief in the directly personal and emotional approach of Sufism.
It must be remembered that this popular character and appeal of Sufism arose out of the ranks of the people themselves and appealed to the people whose main reading matter was furnished by short lives of the saints often replete with their miraculous deeds. It was the unceasing labours of the mystics ascetic or Sufis that gave to Islam its widespread permanent hold upon the masses and that plated such a conspicuous part in spreading the Divine Message among new and fertile lands rather than the slow work of purely orthodox Ulema or their system of propagation.
During the 4th and 5th centuries, Sufism grew in strength in spite of the frowning Ulema it was in this period that the Zikr and Sama from their simple congregational recitation and meditation over the Quran began to show more definite liturgical tendency marked specially by the recitation of chants and litanies. But it was not this difference alone that marked off Sufism from the orthodox services as similar liturgical ceremonies were commonly performed in the mosques as well. The hostility of the theologians was however due partly to their fear that the Sufi Zikr might replace the mosque as the center of religious life. There was also a more deeper and selfish reason for the conflict, the traditional exclusive claim of the possession of sciences of theology and law and their position as the sole authoritative exponents of the Islamic doctrine-sciences which they had built up by infinite trouble and whose acquisition involved long and arduous study. They maintained that it was by their means that the substances of Faith had been preserved against both heretical innovations in doctrine and the attempts of the secular arm to override its privileges and obligations.
Naturally the theologians were proud of their system and jealous for the maintenance of their authority. They held that it was by this method alone that they were able to propagate Islam and promote its cause and that any relaxation would open the way to heresy and corruption both spiritual and material. But the Sufis rejected these claims bluntly and even derisively. According to them there was only one way to knowledge which lay through the direct and personal experience called “Marifat” culminating in momentary union with or absorption into the Godhead and not through the rational and second hand knowledge or ilm of the scholastic type. They thought, theology instead of assisting their process. Actually hindered it. The conflict between the doctrinaire and the seeker or follower of the Inner Light therefore seemed irreconcilable.
The outside influences and doctrines implied in Sufism in these formative centuries, were also suspected by the Ulema. Apart from the various orthodox rules and concepts of Islam the exaltation which the holy Prophet Mohammad enjoyed also appeared to be eclipsing against the overwhelming veneration accorded to Sufi sheikhs in their lifetime and their elevation to sainthood after death. Nothing could, therefore be more intolerable and repugnant to the primitive ideas of Islam and the system of their maintenance by the Ulema but in the teeth of Holy Quran. Tradition, rationalism and orthodox theology the worship of Sufi saints irresistibly crept into the Islamic fold, and eventually swept everything before it. As time went on popular elements of Sufism established themselves more and more firmly in the Islamic fold. More and more religious minded people also joined the ranks of Sufi mystics who sought not metaphysical knowledge of religion but living experience of God. During the 5th century there was a marked drift towards Sufism of some of the ablest thinkers of Islam. Ultimately principle of compromise between orthodoxy and Sufism was inevitably sought with the result that a celebrated theologian Al-Qushari (departed 1072 AD) wrote a treatise urging the cause of the higher Sufism and the acceptance of the doctrine of ecstatic communion with God. The actual revolution is however linked with the name of Imam al-Ghazale (departed 1111 AD) who stands high in his religious insight and intellectual ability and who dived deep into mystics sciences and philosophies. He changed his convictions again and again in his long religious experiments and research. First, he revolted against the casuistry of the theologians and incessantly sought ultimate reality through all the Muslim religious systems and philosophies of his time.
After a prolonged bodily mental and intellectual struggle he finally fell from sheer philosophic agnosticism upon his personal experience of God which he found only in the Sufi path. To his school of thought belonged such Sufi giants as Maulana Rum the author of the celebrated Masnavi (one of the most authentic works on Sufism) Hazrat Junaid Baghdadi, Maulana Shibli, Maulana Fariduddin Attaar, Khaqani, Shamsuddin Haafiz Shirazi (one of the greatest Persian Sufi poets in the East) Sheikh Sa’adi and others. Both Imam al-Ghazali and the stalwart Al-Qushari forged a synthesis that ultimately accommodated the essential principles of Islam between orthodoxy and Sufism which were thus tied to one and the other forever though their paths remained different.
Sufism In India From Iraq and Persia, Sufism perpetrated into India with Hazarat Khawaja Muinuddin Chishty where it found a very congenial soil to prosper after some stubborn opposition. With its advent a large number of Sufi saints sprang up all over the land, doing invaluable service by their solacing influence to the afflicted humanity irrespective of caste or creed. It was this in-discriminating service to the cause of the suffering humanity and peace that won the hearts of the people of India and made the Sufis highly popular among all classes of people from a peasant to the prince. Not only this but even after their death, they are still held in high reverence, a thing which is unknown in other countries. This unflinching devotion is of course not with out any reason; there must be “something” very real and serious to come and end it?
Meritorious Contribution Sufism in spite of its loftiness in religious ideals has been less fastidious and more ready to accept alien practices and ideas provided they produced good results. Blended with Sufism the orthodox couch was undoubtedly refreshed and strengthened and in fact acquired a more popular character and attraction in Islam. Sufism in Western Asia, North Africa, won over large multitudes to Islam. Central Asia, India and Indonesia. In the wake of Sufism, Shia’ism also suffered an eclipse and lost much of its original influence. On the whole Sufism has made a meritorious and invaluable contribution to the promotion and prosperity of Islam in the world.
Sufism implies “Iqtida” i.e. to adhere strictly to the laws of Shariat. It means highly pious and enlightened way of life which may be expressed in conformity with thought and action as explained below: (PBUH) `Qualan’ i.e. expression through ‘Shariat’ or the Divine Law (ordained for the harmonious conduct of man in this world with promise of his salvation in the next.) (b) `Failan’ or ‘Tariqat’ i.e. expression through human activity and discipline under the said Divine Law or ‘Shariat. (c) “Haalan” or Haqiqat i.e. the ‘state ‘ acquired by acting upon and passing through Qualan and Failan stages reaching the zenith of the spiritual perfection. While the Qualan and Failan stages can be analysed or expressed through the human faculties, the expression of Haalan ‘Haqiqat’ or ‘Reality’ is beyond the scope of all human conception and is therefore inexpressible and indescribable because human intellect or faculties are restricted to a ‘limit and transcend no more. This is the highest and final stage of Sufism in which the aspirant is face to face with the ‘Divine Light ‘ and ultimately merges his identity with God Supreme. It is therefore a state, the secrets of which have never been divulged to the humanity at large without Sufism entitles.A Persian couplet describes this ‘state’ as follows “Aan raa ke Khabar shud Khabarash baaz nayamad.” i.e. nobody ever heard of them who dived deep into the secrets of God or the mysteries of Nature.
The Sufis emphasized that ultimate Reality could be grasped only intuitively (Ma’arifat or gnosis). It was veiled from the human eye and intellect, and constituted a mystery which could be apprehended by none but the advanced spirits. Although they described in vivid details how Ma’arifat could be achieved they never concerned themselves with the nature of the Reality. There are clear traces of belief of pantheism and of monism, although in general they believed in a transcendental omnipotent God as the Creator of the universe.
The intuitive or esoteric experience or Reality implied that parallel to the orthodoxy or “external” theology, there was also an “internal” or spiritual interpretation of the Holy Quran and of the actions prescribed by the Law. This spiritual interpretation was necessity subjective, intuitive and esoteric. But this is a very delicate point to be discussed by a layman. Only the advanced Sufis or Saints, who are now rare, can interpret them satisfactorily in the light of their own practical experience. No one in the present scientific civilization can either understand or convince easily the average man on these delicate points.
Philosophy Of Sufism
“The Practice” According to Islamic conception a Sufi is one who is fired with Divine live and who as a true devotee of God and is constantly impatient to seek nearness to HIM. The quest of a Sufi centers round the exploration or probe into the mysteries of the nature. He is wholeheartedly engrossed in seeking out the myriad truths of the TRUTH, and concentrates on the hard task of reconciling his action to his thoughts. This is an extremely difficult process. He has, first of all to suppress or subdue his worldly desires inherent in the soul of man called Nafs in order to attain purity and steadfastness in his character. After attaining this stage, he enters the second phase of building up his external and internal character through mental exercises as the result of which the knowledge of the hidden mysteries of Nature or God is revealed unto him. To summarize the whole process of Sufism, the true path of a Sufi’s salvation lies through the thorny wilderness of renunciation, self-mortification on and annihilation of the Nafs by incessant devotion to God. Thus a Sufi aspirant has to under go a rigid test in morals and by acquiring a perfect knowledge of the Holy Quran and Islamic theology. Also strict adherence to the Muslim law of jurisprudence called ‘Fiqah’ and ‘Hadith’ which deal with the moral, social, economic, and political aspects of Muslim life, he reaches his goal ultimately.
Shariat And Tariqat
The basis of the teachings of the early Sufis was a clear distinction between the real and the apparent, between the external and the internal, between the formal and the spiritual. The codes of beliefs and behavior prescribed in the two were the Shariat which they called ‘external science’ and the Tariqat (the path or way) or the ‘internal’ or “spiritual science”. The starting point of the spiritual progress, they argued was the Shariat but their distinctive contribution to the religious life of the Muslims was the emphasis which they laid on Tariqat. They bypassed the abstract and colorless scholastic discussions of faith and ritual, and supplemented the inspiring orthodox attitude of commands and prohibitions with an “emotive principal and a living religious experience.” In orthodox Islam, these features had become subordinated. By emphasizing them the Sufis sought to restore the religious balance and brought Islam into greater harmony with the prevailing Indian traditions.
Hazrat Shah Sufi Bahauddin Naqshband (RA)
Founder of Naqshabandi Sufi Order
Mazar Mubarak, Shaikh‐ul‐Islam Hazrat Bahauddin Naqshband (May Allah’s blessings upon him) in Bukhara, Uzbekistan
The designation of the Naqshbandi Golden Chain has changed from century to century. From the time of Salman Parsi (RA) to the time of Bayazid al-Bistami (RA) to the time of Sayyidina Abdul Khaliq al-Ghujdawani it was called at-Tayfuriyya. From the time of Sayyidina ‘Abdul Khaliq alGhujdawan to the time of Shah Naqshband it was called the Khwajaganiyya. From the time of Shah Naqshband through the time of Sayyidina Ubaidullah al-Ahrar and Sayyidina Ahmad Faruqi, it was called Naqshbandiyya.
Naqshbandiyya means to “tie the Naqsh very well.” The Naqsh is the perfect engraving of Allah’s Name in the heart of the murid. From the time of Sayyidina Ahmad al-Faruqi to the time of Shaikh Khalid alBaghdadi it was called Naqshbandi-Mujaddidiyya. From the time of Sayyidina Khalid al-Baghdadi until the time of Sayiddina Shaikh Ismail Shirwani it was called the Naqshbandiyya-Khalidiyya. From the time of Sayyidina Isma’il Shirwani until the time of Sayyidina Shaikh ‘Abdullah ad-Daghestani, it was called Naqshbandi Daghestaniyya. And today it is known by the name Naqshbandiyya Haqqaniyya.
The Spiritual Inheritors of the Prophet
Historically speaking, the Naqshbandi tariqat can be traced back to Hazrat Salman Farsi (RA), who succeeds the Prophet (PBUH) in his knowledge and in his role of guiding the Muslim community.
What distinguishes the Naqshbandi School from other Sufi orders was the fact that it took its foundations and principles from the teachings and example of bright star figures in the firmament of the Prophet (PBUH). These great figures were: Salman al-Farisi, Jafar as-Sadiq, Bayazid Tayfur al-Bistami, Abdul Khaliq al-Ghujdawani, and Muhammad Baha’uddin Uwaysi al-Bukhari, known as Shah Naqshband–the eponymous Imam of the tariqat.
Behind the word “Naqshband” stand two ideas: naqsh which means “engraving” and suggests engraving the name of Allah in the heart, and band which means “bond” and indicates the link between the individual and his Creator. This means that the Naqshbandi follower has to practice his prayers and obligations according to the Holy Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH) and to keep the presence and love of Allah alive in his heart through a personal experience of the link between himself and his Lord.
Besides firmament of the Prophet One of them was Salman al-Farisi (RA). His origin was Isfahan in Persia and he was the one who advised the Muslims to dig a trench in the battle of Ahzab. After the Muslims seized al-Mada’in, the capital city of Persia, he was made Prince and governor of that city and remained there until his death.
Another star was Jafar as-Sadiq. A descendant of the Prophet (SM) (PBUH), he rejected all positions of honor in favor of retreat and spiritual learning and practice. He was called “The Inheritor of the Prophetic Station (Maqam an-Nubuwwa) and the Inheritor of the Truthful Station (Maqam as Siddiqiyya).
The oldest recorded occurrence of the term safa was in reference to his student, Jabir ibn ayyan, in the middle of the second Hijri century. He was a mufassir al-Quran or master in exegesis, a scholar of hadith, and one of the greatest mujtahids (qualified to give legal decisions) in Medina. His Tafsir is partially preserved in Sulami’s haqa’iq at-tafsir. Layth ibn Sad, one of the most reliable transmitters of prophetic traditions, witnessed Jafar’s miraculous powers as the latter was able to ask for anything, and God would grant it to him on the spot.
Another star was Bayazid Tayfur al-Bistami whose grandfather was a Zoroastrian. Bayazid made a detailed study of the statutes of Islamic law (sharica) and practiced a strict regimen of self-denial. All his life he was assiduous in the practice of his religious obligations. He urged his students (murids) to put their efforts in the hands of God and he encouraged them to accept a sincere and pure doctrine of tawhid, knowledge of the Oneness of God. This doctrine, he said, imposes five obligations on the sincere:
- To keep obligations according to the Holy Quran and Follow Ahle-Bayt;
- To always speak the truth;
- To keep the heart free from hatred;
- To avoid forbidden food (haram);
- To shun innovation (bid`a).
Bayazid said that the ultimate goal of the Sufis is to know God in this world, to reach His Divine Presence, and to see Him in the Hereafter. To that effect he added: “There are special servants of Allah who, if Allah veiled them from His vision in Paradise, would have implored Him to bring them out of Paradise as the inhabitants of the Fire implore Him to escape from Hell.”
Yet another star in the firmament of the Prophet (PBUH) was Abdul Khaliq al-Ghujdawani, who was born in the village of Ghujdawan, near Bukhara in present-day Uzbekistan. He was raised and buried there. He studied Holy Quran and the Islamic sciences of both external and internal knowledge until he reached a high station of purity. He then traveled to Damascus where he established a school from which many students graduated and went on to become masters of fiqh and hadith as well as spirituality in their time, both in the regions of Central Asia and in the Middle East.
Abdul Khaliq continued the work of his predecessors by formulating the dhikr (remembrance of God) passed down from the Prophet (PBUH) according to the Sunnah. In his letters he set down the code of conduct (adab) that the students of the Naqshbandiyya were expected to follow.
It may be mentioned here that, The Naqshbandia Sufi order did not have any connection or relation to So-Called first Caliph Abu-Bakar Siddique. Abu-Bakar had no spiritual relation with the beloved Prophet Hazrat Mohammad SM (PBUH). Abu Bakar was the self-proclaimed Caliph, he disregarded the order of the Holy Prophet, The declaration of Ghadir E Khum as Hazrat Ali (RA) was bestowed Spiritual Successor by the Holy Prophet. Hazrat Ali RA was the founder of Spiritual kingdom and Sufism, without Hazrat Ali RA, there is no chain of Spiritual relation with the Holy Prophet. Author and Editor of this book are not a supporter of Shia Sect, the controversial Shia sect are not proper Muslims.
Brief details of the Imam of the Tariqat Hazrat Shah Baha’uddin Naqshband (RA)
In this constellation, we come finally to Muhammad Bahauddan Uways al-Bukhari, known as Shah Naqshband, the Imam of the Naqshbandi Tariqat without peer. He was born in the year 1317 C.E. in the village of Qasr al-carifan, near Bukhara. After he mastered the sharicah sciences at the tender age of 18, he kept company with the Shaikh Muhammad Baba as-Samasi, who was an authority in hadith in Central Asia. After the latter’s death, he followed Shaikh Amir Kulal who continued and perfected his training in the external and the internal knowledge.
The students of Shaikh Amir Kulal used to make dhikr aloud when sitting together in association, and silent dhikr when alone. Shah Naqshband, however, although he never criticized nor objected to the loud dhikr, preferred the silent dhikr. Concerning this he says, “There are two methods of dhikr; one is silent and one is loud. I chose the silent one because it is stronger and therefore more preferable.” The silent dhikr thus became the distinguishing feature of the Naqshbandiyya among other tariqats.
Shah Naqshband performed Hajj (Pilgrimage) three times, after which he resided in Merv and Bukhara. Towards the end of his life he went back to settle in his native city of Qasr al-Arifan. His teachings became quoted everywhere and his name was on every tongue. Visitors from far and wide came to see him and to seek his advice. They received teaching in his school and mosque, a complex which at one time accommodated more than five thousand people. This school is the largest Islamic center of learning in Central Asia and still exists in our day. It was recently renovated and reopened after surviving seventy years of Communist rule.
Shah Naqshband’s teachings changed the hearts of seekers from darkness to light. He continued to teach his students the knowledge of the Oneness of God in which his predecessors had specialized, emphasizing the realization of the state of ihsan (excellence) for his followers according to the hadith of the Prophet (PBUH), “Ihsan is to worship God as if you see Him.” When Shah Naqshband died he was buried in his garden as he requested. The succeeding Kings of Bukhara took care of his school and mosque, expanding them and increasing their religious endowments (awqaf).
Succeeding shaikhs of the Naqshbandi Tariqat wrote many biographies of Shah Naqshband. Among them are Mascud al-Bukhari and Sharif al-Jarjani, who composed the Awrad Baha’uddan which describes him and his life’s works including his fatawa (legal decisions). Shaikh Muhammad Parsa, who died in Medina in 822 H. (1419 C.E.) wrote Risala Qudsiyya in which he talks of Shah Naqshband’s life, his virtues, and his teachings.
Shah Naqshband’s literary legacy included many books. Among them are Awrad an-Naqshbandiyyah, the Devotions of Shah Naqshband. Another book is Tanbih al-Ghafilin. A third book is Maslakul Anwar. A fourth is Hadiyyatu-s-Salikan wa Tuhfat at-Talibin. He left many noble expressions praising the Prophet (PBUH) and he wrote many legal rulings. One of his opinions was that all the different acts and kinds of worship, whether obligatory or voluntary, were permitted for the seeker in order to reach reality. Prayer, fasting, zakat (paying the poor tax), mujahadat (striving) and zuhd (self-denial) were emphasized as ways to reach Allah Almighty.
Shah Naqshband built his school on the renewal of the teachings of the Islamic religion. He insisted on the necessity of keeping the Holy Quran and the teachings of the Sunnah. When they asked him, “What are the requirements of one who follows your way?” he said, “To follow the Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH).” He continued saying: “Our way is a rare one. It keeps the Urwat ul-Wuthqa, the Unbreakable Bond, and it asks nothing else of its followers but to take hold of the Pure Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH) and follow the way of the Sahabah (Companions of the Prophet (PBUH)) in their ijtihad (efforts for Allah).
“The Naqshbandi School is the easiest and simplest way for the student to understand tawhid. It urges its followers to seek a state of complete worship of Allah both publicly and privately by keeping the complete code of conduct of the Prophetic Sunnah. It encourages people to keep to the strictest modes of worship (cazima) and to abandon exemptions (rukhsa). It is also free from all innovations and deviations. It does not demand of its followers perpetual hunger or wakefulness. That is how the Naqshbandiyya has managed to remain free from the excesses of the ignorant and the charlatans (mushacwazan). In sum we say that our way is the mother of all tariqats and the guardian of all spiritual trusts. It is the safest, wisest, and clearest way. It is the purest drinking-station, the most distilled essence. The Naqshbandiyya is innocent from any attack because it keeps the sunnah of the beloved Prophet (PBUH).”
We are presenting to the general public, by order of our Sheikh, Sheikh Muhammad Nazim al-Haqqani, fortieth in that Golden Chain of the Naqshbandi Masters, an all-too-brief book filled with the light of these Pure Masters, their aphorisms, their teachings, their way of life, and their exemplary saintliness. We hope that it will bring the reader a taste of the lives of these Shaikhs, who light our way to the knowledge of Reality and Truth, to the Love of the Beloved Prophet (PBUH), and to the ultimate goal of all, which is to reach the Divine Presence of our Creator.
“My work is to weep at night in remembering my Beloved; my sleep is to remain absorbed in thoughts of my Beloved.” “In vain do eyes stay awake if not to behold You. In vain do tears flow for another than You.” “The lovers die at every moment, for their dying is not of one kind.
The lover has received two hundred spirits from the Spirit of Guidance, and he sacrifices them all at every instant. For every spirit he receives ten in return –read the Holy Quran: Ten the like of it [6:160].”
Hazrat Mujjaddid Alf Sani (RA)
Mujadadia Tariqa, Sirhind Punjabi
Founder of Mujadadia Sufi Order, Sir-Hind, India
Khwaja Imam-e-Rabbani Mujadid Alf Sani Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi (RA), Imam-e-Rabbani Mujadid Alf – Sani Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi is commonly known as the Revivalist of the Second Millennium. His pedigree is following:
Ash-Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi (RA), Ibn ash-Shaikh Abdul Ahad son of Zainul Abidin son of Abdul Hayee, son of Muhammad son of Habibullah, son of Rafiuddin, son of Naseeruddin, son of Sulayman, son of Yusoof, son of Ishaq, son of Abdullah, son of Shoab, son of Ahmad, son of Yusoof, son of Shaikh Shihabuddin, known as Farukh Shah , son of Nasiruddin, son of Mehmood, son of Sulayman, son of Shaikh Masood, son of Shaikh Abdullah Waizul Asghar, son of Abdullah Waizul Akbar, son of Abul Fatteh, son of Ishaq, son of Ibrahim, son of Nasir, son of Syedna Abdullah (RA), the son of Amir-ul Mo’mnin Caliph of the Prophet (PBUH).
Shaikh Ahmad (RA) was born on Shawwal 14, 971 AH., or May 25, 1564 A.D., in Sirhind, India. He received his early education from his father and later learned from a many Shaikhs of his time. He learned the Holy Quran under the able guidance of his father. Then he went to Sialkot and got education of Islamic sciences from Molana Yaqoob Kashmiri. In the meantime he was also benefited from spiritual guidance of his father. In his prime youth, he became a spiritual leader himself and was allowed to train followers in all three Orders — Suhrwardia, Qadiria, and Chishtia.
His father passed away in Jumadi-al-Thani, 1007 AH., or January 1599 A.D., at the age of 80. Next year, he proceeded for pilgrimage to Mecca. He came to Delhi en route to Mecca. Here he heard the praise of Khwaja Baqibillah (RA) who had been sent from Samarqand to India by Shaikh Muhammad Umkanki with fore tiding that “A man from India is going to appear. He will be the Imam of his century. He will be trained by you.” Hazrat Imam-e-Rabbani (RA) subordinated in allegiance to Hazrat Baqibillah (RA) and in mere seven days, he rose as the Imam of Naqshbandia Order. He then proceeded for Hajj. After returning, he settled in Sirhind. He often used to visit Delhi to get more beneficence from Hazrat Baqibillah (RA).
Those were the heydays of Mughal empire. King Jehangir was on the throne with the legacy of his father’s innovative Deen-e-Akbari. Poor Muslims were unable to resist the tyrant might of Mughal rulers. It was the time Shaikh Ahmad (RA) dared them and tried to stop the forced implementation of that false cult. He had to suffer prison for four years in Gwaliar Jail for not prostrating before king Jehangir but did not budge. He not only struggled to bring an end to Deen-Akbari but also undertook a gigantic reform movement to purge Muslim society from the traces of Hindu rites prevailed among Muslims.
On Friday, 10 Rabi-al-Awal 10,1010 AH., Allah Exalted rises him to the status of the Revivalist of the Religion. It is related to him that once he was in meditation, he visioned Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) arrived and congratulated him on his new status and put the turns of turban on his head. Next year Shah Sikandar Qadri, who was direct descendant of Hazrat Abdul Qadir Jilani (RA) came to him and put the cloak of Hazrat Jilani on him saying that Hazrat Jilani had revealed him in a vision to do so.
He had numerous followers in India and elsewhere with whom he made constant contacts through letters. These letters are called ‘Maktoobat-e-Mujadadia’ and form the most authentic reference on Sufism.
He passed away on Safar 28, 1034 AH., or December 12, 1624 A.D., at the age of 63 and 63 days. His funeral prayers were led by his successor on the seat of The Naqshbandia order and his elder son Hazrat Khwaja Muhammad Saeed (RA). He was laid to rest in Sirhind. Later on his son Hazrat Muhammad Sadiq built a shrine over his august grave.
Imam Rabbani (RA) was the Shaikh in all the four prominent orders of Sufism: Naqshbandia, Qadria, Chishtia and Suhrwardia. He preferred Naqshbandia, because of its supremacy among other orders.
He was succeeded by his elder son Hazrat Shaikh Muhammad Saeed (RA).
It may be mentioned here that, The Mujadadia Sufi order did not have any connection or relation to So-Called second Caliph Umar Ibn Khattab. Umar had no spiritual relation with the beloved Prophet Hazrat Mohammad SM (PBUH). Umar was the self-proclaimed Caliph and made the conspiracy to establish the Calipha E Rashidun, he disregarded the order of the Holy Prophet, The declaration of Ghadir E Khum as Hazrat Ali (RA) was bestowed Spiritual Successor by the Holy Prophet. Hazrat Ali RA was the founder of Spiritual kingdom and Sufism, without Hazrat Ali RA, there is no chain of Spiritual relation with the Holy Prophet. Author and Editor of this book are not a supporter of Shia Sect, the controversial Shia sect are not proper Muslims.
The Great Sufi Saint Hazrat Hafez Ahmed (Sunnoti Shah Shaheb) (RA) of Lohagara, Chittagong, Bangladesh
The Great Sufi Saint of Bangladesh, One of the Best Beloved follower of Prophet Mohammad (SM) had established the “Siratunnabi International Conference” in 1970 to Commemorate and Properly Respect the Holy Prophet Mohammad (SM) in accordance of the Holy Quran Surah Ahzab’s 56 Ayaat.
Translation: “The Almighty God Certainly HAS BEEN, IS and WILL CONTINUE to Send Infinite Love and Affection to His Beloved Prophet Hazrat Mohammad (SM) (PBUH) along with his Special Angels who are Directed by the Almighty God to Continuously Salute with Respect, Dignity and Honor to the Beloved Holy Prophet for His Kind Attention. The Almighty God again Commanding to the True Believers to Pay Respect with Dignity and Honor for Their Forgiveness and Mercy from the Beloved Holy Prophet of Islam and Mankind.”
– (Holy Al‐Quran Surah Al-Ahzab, 33:56)
The “Siratunnabi International Conference” runs for the Period of 15 Days, for which He invites local and national all sects of Muslims Religious and Spiritual Leaders to join this Conference to practice and spread as well as exchange their own ideological concepts about the beloved Prophet Mohammad (SM). His Eminency Dr. Alam visited this Great Sufi Saint in 1977 with the Religious Spiritual Leader of Azimpur Dayera Sharif Shaikh Syed Dayemullah (RA) and took the responsibility for the on-going yearly 15 days Siratunnabi Conference. In 1978 His Eminency Dr. Alam as Chief Coordinator and sponsor of this holy conference; while he was constructing the invitation letter to the world dignified religious and spiritual leaders by mistake of typing error Dr. Alam wrote 19 Days in place of 15 Days. But this Greatest Spiritual Leader on his own Spiritual Power extended the Siratunnabi Conference to 19 Days with great Happiness, which still to this very day runs for 19 Days. His Eminency Dr. Alam invites Religious and Spiritual Leader from all over the world and local Bangladeshi Sunni, Wahabi, Salafi, Jamati, Tablighi Ulema (so-called religious leaders). It is very unfortunate to mention here that, this Lohagara and Shatkania area of Bangladesh belongs to some of the most fanatic Muslim’s religious group such as Jamate Islami, Salafi, Wahabi and Tablighi gangsters. The Potia Wahabi Madrasha and Hathazari Wahabi largest Madrasha of the country are also situated in this locality. The Great Sufi Saint’s main intention with this conference is to open the eye of those Wahabi, Salafi, Jamate and Tablighi groups for their ignorance to properly respect the Holy Prophet SM. This Great Sufi Saint had dedicated his whole life, for the cause of spreading most important Knowledge on how to properly show Respect to the Holy Prophet SM along with the accurate translation of Surah Al-Ahzab’s 56 Ayaat of Holy Quran.
Translation: Exalted is He who took His Beloved Prophet by night from al-Masjid al-Haram to al-Masjid al- Aqsa, whose surroundings We have blessed, to show him of Our signs. Indeed, He is the Hearing, the Seeing. – (Holy Al‐Quran Surah Al-Isra, 17:1)
Greatest Sufi Saints from the Prophet Family, Who dedicated Their Life For the Cause of Islam in “Bujhorgo Ummot Nagar Nizampur Porgana”
Indian Subcontinent From Yemen, Egypt & Madina
Hazrat Ahmed Shah Barelvi (RA) & Hazrat Sufi Noor Mohammad Nizampuri (RA) And Their Companions
A renowned Sufi Saint from the Prophet’s Family Hazrat Shah Sufi Syed Ahmed Barelvi (RA), was famous for his contribution towards establishment of the Real True Islam in Indian sub-continent. He waged jihad against the Sikhs, misguided Shiites along with British Empire during the 1820 – 1830s in undivided India. His prominent Khalifa Hazrat Shah Sufi Noor Mohammad Nizampuri (RA) along with hundreds of his disciples fought along with him in various battles; they were all from Prophet’s Family. They were most influential and Greatest Sufi Saints from Haidramaut, Yemen. They earned the title of “Gazi” after the battle of Balakot and others; Most importantly, the famous Great Sufi Saint Hazrat Shah Sufi Noor Mohammad Nizampuri (RA) whom migrated from Yemen after the Battle of Balakot and settled in Maulihash, Chittagong along with his companions. It is mentioned here that, Hazrat Sufi Noor Mohammad Nizampuri (RA) was the Caliph of Azimpur Dayera Sharif under the Dayemia Sufi Order and disciple of Hazrat Shah Sufi Syed Laqiutullah (RA) son of Greatest Sufi Saint Hazrat Shah Sufi Syed Mohammad Dayem (RA).
Bangladesh has been a land that has accommodated various Sufi Saints from mostly Iraq, Iran, Yemen, Egypt and Madinah, Particularly at place called Nizampur, Chittagong. In history it was recorded and renown as “Bujhurgo Ummot Nagar of Nizampur Porgana” meaning the “City of Elite Sufi Saints of Nizampur Region”, evidence can be found in in the Land record Administration in South District of Chittagong, Bangladesh. There were also more than hundred Sufi Saints that joined them from Yemen and Madina, particularly forefathers of Hazrat Maolana Abdul Goni (RA) of Maulihash, Mirsharai, Hazrat Jorif Miah (RA) of Moghadia, Hazrat Raja Miah (RA) of East Haitkandi (Kochua), Hazrat Bura Huzur Moulobi Saab (RA) from Chotto Dargah Hat, and Hazrat Zinnat Ali Miah (RA) of Gachbaria, father of Hazrat Mohammad Miah (RA) from Chotokomoldoh, Mirsharai, as well as forefather of Hazrat Maolana Wali Ahmed (RA) of Mithachara, Mirsharai, Chittagong. They all fought alongside Hazrat Syed Ahmed Barelvi (RA) against the British, later migrated to “Bujhurgo Ummot Nagar Nizampur Porgana” or current day Nizampur, Mirsharai, Chittagong. There was also another Sufi Saint, a Sultan of Parsia named Hazrat Zaid Shah Irani (RA). Although it can’t be certain when exactly he came to Bangladesh; But he settled in Baratakia, Mirsharai, Chittagong with his companions.
In Pakistan, Bangladesh and India there are thousands of people that are claiming to themselves as so-called Ahle-Rasool just by adding “Syed” in front of their name; but reality is that, these peoples are only claiming this title in the name of business. Their malpractice of Islam is causing tremendous destruction to Islam and the dignity of Prophet Mohammad SM (PBUH) and his Family. But humble Sufi Saints like Hazrat Jorif Miah (RA), Hazrat Raja Miah (RA) and Hazrat Zinnat Ali Miah (RA); they added “Miah” at the end of their last name instead of using “Syed”. Most certainly they are direct descendants from the Holy Prophet and given their heart and soul for the cause of Islam but in silence.
During 1920’s, when the Abdul Wahab Najdi’s vicious knowledge against Prophet Mohammad SM (PBUH) and Sufi Saints was spreading amongst Indian subcontinent; It has also affected areas like Bangladesh most importantly Nizampur, Chittagong. Hence, after the 1970s these areas had completely become desolated from the teaching of Sufism, Spirituality and true reality of Islam. It may be mentioned here that, some of those Wahabi and Selafi agents had been trying to destroy the dignity of Hazrat Syed Ahmed Barelvi (RA) by associating their Wahabi and Selafi ideologies with him.