H. Ali ibn Hussain ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib
(H. ZAINUL ‘ABIDEEN) (Ornament/ beauty of the worshipers)
H. Ali Ibn Hussein Ibn Ali ibn Abi Tali “Zainul Abideen” was born on the 5th of Sha’ban in 38 AH/685 CE in Medina. He resembled his grandfather H. ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib when he was born. H. ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib (RA) was still alive and would remain in his company for another two yrs. Time and again he is recorded saying “My son you are Zainul ‘Abideen.” His father was The Great Shaheed, H. Imam Hussein (RA) and his mother was H. Sharabanu (RA). She was a princess from Iran. She was daughter of Yazdgerd 2nd while some say the 3rd. Basically her father was the last king of pre Islamic Iran. Because of this he was called “ibn Khiyaratayn” or the son of the best two meaning: The Quraysh among the Arabs and Persians among the non‐Arabs. The Rashidun Army of Ameerul Mu’mineen, H. Umar Al Farooq (RA) captured Iran in 21 AH. The Persian Ruler Yazdgerd 3rd was murdered and several yrs later his daughters Sharabanu and Ghayhanbanu were brought as prisoners in the Khalifate of H. ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib. They were sent by his governor, Harith ibn Jabir al‐Ju’fi. The two sisters were freed and Sharabanu was given to Imam Hussein (RA). The younger sister was given in marriage to H. Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr (RA). Sharabanu would give birth to ‘Ali ibn Hussain (RA) – (zainul ‘Abideen). Ghayhanbanu had given birth to Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr (grandson of H. Abu Bakr As Sadiq (RA), whose daughter Farwah bint Qasim (considered the golden chain in Naqishbandi Sufi Order) would marry H. Muhammad Baqir ibn ‘Ali ibn Hussain (RA).
It is recorded that after her marriage to Imam Hussain (RA) she became very pious. She had been educated in a house were blessings and salawat were descending every second. It had been recorded that once her maid servant showed pity to her condition and saying it must be very hard to live in the simple house of Hussain (RA) after having lived amongst the richest of a princess. To which she replied “You should never talk like that because you don’t understand where I was (before accepting Islam) and where I am now (after having accepted Islam and marrying grandson of Nabi Muhammad (SM). I was in hellfire and came to Paradise. I was in the house of fire worshippers and came to the house of the worshippers of The One, Allah.” She would maut shortly after giving birth to Imam ‘Ali ibn Hussain (RA).
H. ‘Ali ibn Hussain (RA) like other progeny H. Muhammad (SM) did not attend any school or center. Their knowledge came directly from Allah (swt). Their training and information came directly from their fathers and grandfathers. Therefore, Imam ‘Ali ibn Hussain’s life was influenced by three: H. ‘Ali, H. Hasan and H. Hussain (RA).
One day when Imam ‘Ali (RA) was praying young Zainul ‘Abideen who was only one and one/half yrs. old began imitating his grandfather. He prayed the same way Imam ‘Ali did. On completing his prayers, H. ‘Ali (RA) said “How truthful was the Prophet (SM) when he said “our young and our old are the same, all being Muhammad.” His grandfather, The Ameerul Mu’mineen and “Ashara I Mubashsharah”, H. Ali was assassinated in 40 AH.
According to H. ‘Ali’s appointment, the choice of Caliph was restricted to H. Hasan and his younger brother H. Hussain (RA). The Muslims gave their bey’ah to H. Hasan (RA) without dispute. The Ahlul‐Bayt eventually moved back to Medina from Kufa after H. Hasan stipulated the famous Peace Treaty in 41 AH which contained three conditions:
1) To abandon the public cursing of H. ‘Ali in Jumu’ah Khutbah.
2) Mu’awiyya should not use public tax money for his own personal needs.
3) There should be peace i.e. the followers of Ahlul‐Bayt should be given security and their rights.
Then he abdicated the Khalifate to Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan in 41 AH. As a young boy until the age of about 12 he would spend most of his time with his blessed Uncle H. Hasan ibn ‘Ali (RA). In Medina, Ahlul‐Bayt wasn’t free from oppression. Marwan ibn Hakam the personal secretary of H. Uthman (RA) and staunch opponent of Bani Hashim was now the Umayyad governor of Medina.
Ibn Sa’d narrated that Umayr ibn Ishaq (RA) said:
“Marwan was the Amir over us, and he used to abuse ‘Ali every Jumu’ah from the minbar (of The Holy Last Messenger), while H. Hasan (RA) would listen and make no reply. Then he sent a man to him saying, I swear by Ali, by ‘Ali, by ‘Ali, and by you, by you! I don’t find any likeness for you except the mule, to which it is said, “Who is your father?” and it replies, “My mother is a mare.” H. Hasan said to him, “Return to him and say to him, “By Allah, I will not efface for you anything of what you have said by abusing you. However, you and I have an appointment together before Allah, Then, if you are truthful, may Allah recompense you for your truthfulness. If you are a liar, then Allah is worse in revenge.”
Ibn Sa’d narrated that Zurayq ibn Sawwar (RA) said:
“There were some hot words between H. Hasan and Marwan, then Marwan approached him, became very tough on him and H. Hasan was silent. Marwan blew his now using his right hand. H. Hasan said to him, “Woe to you! Do you not know that the right hand is for the face, and the left is for the private parts (and for unclean matters generally)? I am disgusted with you (filthy person). Marwan became silent.”
H. Hasan (RA) lacked moral support and had a very hard time during the peace treaty with public taunts and abuse after abuse against him and his family. Mainly from the Umayyad supporters and the rebels of his own followers who blamed H. Hasan for having relinquished the Khalifate. H. Hasan would be assassinated in 49 AH by poison from his wife Ja’dah bint Ash’ath as mentioned earlier.
H. ‘Ali ibn Hussain stayed in the company of his father from this point until 61 AH. In 56 AH, H. ‘Ali ibn Hussain’s 1st marriage to H. Fatimah as Sadiq bint Hasan ibn ‘Ali (Lady Fatimah) (RA) produced a son name Muhammad Al Baqir whom we shall read more about later. After receiving invitation and pledge of allegiance from the people of Iraq H. Hussain ibn ‘Ali left Medina for Iraq. H. ‘Ali ibn Hussain was about 22 yrs old at this time. He wasn’t permitted to join his father and supporters in becoming martyrs on the 10th of Muharram. When his father visited him for the last time he begged him to allow him to give his life fighting in the way of Islam.
It is recorded that H. Hussain ibn ‘Ali (RA) said,
“You have a more difficult jihad than the one you wish to join now.”
In 61 AH, H. ‘Ali ibn Husain (RA) and the survivors of Ahlul-Bayt were taken as prisoners of war. Witnessing the insult and humiliation thrown on him and the family of H. Muhammad (SM). H. ‘Ali ibn Husain (RA) had the responsibility of the women folk of the family of H. Muhammad (SM). Staying with them to Kufa, then to Damascus and then returning with them to Medina. After Martyrdom of H. Husain (RA) the survival of true Islam depended on H. ‘Ali ibn Husain (RA) who was 22 yrs old at that time. He had the very hard job of letting the world know the struggles of his grandfather, uncle and especially his father in Karbala were exposing the evil intentions of Mu’awiyya, Yazid ibn Mu’awiyya and Bani Umayyad. He had to keep the true message of Islam alive and not let it be confused with the policies of Bani Umayyad.
Although, the Army of Yazid ibn Mu’awiyya didn’t kill Ali ibn Hussein (RA), they treated him very badly, by putting him heavy chains called al‐Jami’ah, that left deep marks on his body for the rest of his life. He was made to travel on the open back of a camel in the burning sunshine from Karbala to Kufa and then from Kufa to Sham. Sometimes he would be made to walk in the burning sands of the desert. The women and children of Ahlul‐Bayt were also handcuffed and treated like slaves kept without hijab or purdah. The daughters of H. ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib (RA), was treated worse than criminals. All of their Hijab ‐ coverings, concealment from non‐relatives and non familiar men, and jalaabas ‐ outer attire coverings were all taken from them. A caller would introduce them to travelers who passed by “Those who have disobeyed the ruler Yazid ibn Mu’awiyya.” They were first presented as prisoners to Ibn Ziyad in Kufa and then to Yazid in Damascus.
A miracle took place when on the 13th of Muharram, 3 days after the Martyrdom of H. Hussain ibn ‘Ali (RA), the Syrian army cut off the heads of all the martyrs and left the bodies without burying them. They did not allow H. ‘Ali ibn Hussain to bury them instead he was taken as prisoner to Kufa. After the army left the battle field, the Banu Asad tribe (Who was a respected Arab tribe known for their heroism and also had many martyrs in Karbala. They supported Nabi Muhammad (SM) in pre Islamic times and also during prophetic period. They also trace their lineage back to Nabi Isma’el (AS), they lived near Karbala and came out to bury the martyrs. Since it was no way they could identify whose body belonged to who they were worried and hesitated. Suddenly, they SM a man on a horse coming in their direction. Fearing he was one of Yazid’s spies they went into hiding. The man came to where they were hiding a called them to come out. He told them he was ‘Ali ibn Husain (RA) and had come through miracle with the help of Allah (The Exalted) from Kufa to help them bury the martyrs. In this way the imam helped them bury his father and the rest of Martyrs where they lie buried today.
Having spent no less than 1 yr in Yazid’s prison/dungeon in Damascus, Ahlul‐Bayt returned to Medina except the wife of H. Imam Husain (RA). Her name was Umm Rabab (RA) She is quoted saying :
“I will not return, for my home is here were my husband is buried.” She stayed in Karbala until she maut a few years later. Because of her a small town would flourish solely for the upkeep of pilgrims who began to visit the grave of Imam Hussain, his family and companions. On reaching Medina, He camped outside the town and let everyone know he was back. Dressed in mourning dress, he sat on a chair and addressed the people of Medina. He said:
“Praise be to Allah at all times. He gave us (Ahlul‐Bayt) the strength to bear great hardships. A great loss has taken place in Islam. My father Abi Abdullah, his friends and dear ones have been killed. His women and children have been taken as prisoners. My father’s head was cut, placed on the edge of a spear and paraded from one Muslim city to another. O People we were treated like we were non‐Muslims and kafirs, although we had committed no crime or sin and had not wronged Islam in anyway. By Allah, If the Prophet (SM) would have ordered them to fight against us they would still have done nothing more than what they did.”
Ummul Mu’mineen H. Umm Salam (RA) b. 580 CE now in her 80’s had begged H. Hussain (RA) not to undertake his journey to Iraq. Thoroughly shocked, H. Umm Salama (RA)had heard the news of the terrible bloodshed that followed. This news proved too much for the veteran lady Sahaba and last surviving wife of Nabi Muhammad (SM) to handle. She immediately got ill and would maut shortly after that. She was buried in Jannatul Baqi with the other Ummul Mu’mineen. Her students like H. Hasan Basri would carry on her legacy and continued to work for Islam the way she had. This reaction of extreme shock by the people made Yazid ibn Muawiyah worried and very fearful. Yazid decided to murder anyone who opposed him. Prominent Muslims throughout the Empire began to rise against Yazid like Abdullah ibn Zubair and Mukhtar’s Al Thaqafi. In 62 AH, the Muslims expelled the governor and Banu Umayyah from Medina and appointed a man of their own choice H. Hanzala. This increased the dangers for H. ‘Ali ibn Hussain who was living in Medina. The people of Medina lashed out and threw off their bey’ah to Yazid which resulted in an all‐out siege on Medina in 62 AH. H. ‘Abdullah ibn Zubair rebelled in Mecca which resulted in and all out siege on Mecca in 63 AH. The General, Muslim ibn Uqba and his army showed complete disrespect and disregard for Mecca and Medina, The Holy Ka’ba and Masjid an Nabi respectively. Yazid would abruptly succumb to his mental/psychotic disease he had developed immediately after Karbala. He died at 38 yrs old in the same year of his attack on Mecca.
During this year the Umayyad Dynasty was in trouble. After Yazid’s death and the abdication of his son Muawiyah 2nd who publicly denounced the actions of his Grandfather and father.
It is recorded that Muawiyah 2nd “gathered the people on a well known day, he stood among-st them and said:
“My grandfather stripped the command from those who deserved it, and from one who is more justified of it because of his relation to The Holy Last Messenger (SM) and that is ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib. He took over by your help as you are fully aware. Then following him my father wore the command and he did not deserve it. He quarreled with the son of the daughter of The Holy Last Messenger (SM), and by that deed he shortened his own life….He rode his whim and hope left him behind. He began to cry and continued: “Surely, our greatest problems is our knowledge of his bad behavior and awful demise and that he killed the progeny of The Holy Last Messenger (SM) and he permitted drinking alcohol and he fought in the sanctuary of Mecca and destroyed the Ka’ba. I am not the one who is dressing up for your command or the one who is responsible for your followers, you choose for yourselves!!”
The power in the Umayyad family shifted from Abu Sufyan’s descendants to Al‐ Hakam’s descendants.
The despised and aged Marwan ibn Al Hakam became the new Caliph in 63 AH for 9 months. He had earned the title the “thread of evil” because of his devious ways and wicked stature. His reign would be cut short after he was killed by his wife. His son ‘Abdul Malik ibn Marwan became Caliph in the same year. During this period H. Mukhtar Al Thaqafi (RA) acted as a wazir of H. Muhammad ibn Al Hanafiyyah the uncle of H. ‘Ali ibn Hussain. H. Muhammad ibn Al Hanafiyyah though reluctant to involve himself in politics, he was still the appointed Figurehead of Bani Hashim. He gave H. Mukhtar (RA) discretely permission to revolt in his families name. H. Mukhtar (RA) stated that he was only interested in avenging H. Hussain ibn ‘Ali (RA) and the martyrs of Karbala and indeed he killed anyone and everyone who had been implicated in that crime.
Especially, Ibn Marjana, ‘Ubaidullah Ibn Ziyad, The accursed (His father Ziyad ibn Abih i.e. son of his father was the persecutor of H. ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib’s followers. Ziyad was the illegitimate son Sumayyah and Abu Sufyan ibn Harb. Muawiyah forged his name as ibn Abi Sufyan erasing the indication of Abu Sufyan’s adultery. In 67 AH, Ibn Ziyad fled to Syria and made preparations to fight Mukhtar’s army. This Battle would be called The Battle of Khazir and approximately 500 of those who had fought against H. Hussain had been routed and beheaded including the accursed Shimr Al Jawshan. Their heads were sent to H. Mukhtar (RA) in Kufa. Shortly after that Ibn Marjana was apprehended and also beheaded. His head was also sent to H. Mukhtar (RA) in Kufa. H. Mukhtar’s’ victory spread all over the Islamic cities. The Muslims rejoiced when they heard of Ibn Marjana’s’ beheading. The head of (Ibn Marjana and Shimr Al Jawshan) were secretly sent to H. ‘Ali ibn Hussain(RA) who on seeing them went into sajda and said:
“I thank Allah who kept me alive to this day so that I could see the heads of those tyrants who killed my father.”
It was only then he instructed the Ahlul‐Bayt to: “remove your clothes of mourning, adorn yourselves and celebrate the day with joy and happiness. (6 years after Karbala). H. Mukhtar had previously made peace agreements with H. Abdullah ibn Zubair but in order to pose a united front against ‘Abdul Malik ibn Marwan and his Syrian/Egyptian army but Ibn Zubair had personal ambitions and attacked H. Mukhtar anyway. Unaware of the attack all of his military focus was aimed at Abdul Malik ibn Marwan’s army. In 67 AH/687 CE H. Mukhtar was besieged in Kufa and killed. The people of Syria and Egypt had given allegiance to ‘Abdul Malik ibn Marwan just as they did his father. Iraq and Hejaz were under control of H. ‘Abdullah ibn Zubair.
Abdul Malik appointed his general Hajjaj ibn Yousef al Thaqafi to deal with Abdullah ibn Zubair who had taken refuge in Mecca. After negotiations failed in 73 AH, al Hajjaj had the Holy City Bombarded in which the blessed Ka’ba was destroyed a second time. H. Abdullah ibn Zubair was slain among a few supporters within the precincts of the Holy Ka’ba. During this entire period H. ‘Ali ibn Hussain had been preaching for the last 12 yrs. the message of true Islam without appearing to be working against the government.
It is recorded that H. ‘Ali ibn Hussain went into isolation from the public for at least one year after returning from Karbala.
In fact, From 62 AH to 95 AH when he left this world, H. ‘Ali ibn Hussain (RA) led a quiet life preaching Islam in two ways: 1st he kept the message of H. Hussain’s sacrifice alive through mourning. There was not a day that passed without the Imam crying in memory of his father and others who gave their lives in Karbala. 2nd He encouraged lovers of Ahlul-Bayt to remember the martyrs of Karbala as much as they could. Because H. ‘Ali ibn Hussain’s isolation, Ahlul-Bayt remained safe from the Syrian Armies cruelties during the siege and destruction of the two Holy Cities.
In 66 AH, three years after the tragedy of Karbala, Nu’ man reported that he came to Medina. He saw H. Ali ibn Husain (RA) standing at the grave of H. Muhammad (SM) weeping and complaining about the ill treatment Ahlul‐Bayt received from the Umayyad family. He remained in that state until he fainted and taken to his house by his followers.
An‐Nu’ man said:
“I followed the Imam to his house and asked him “what was the most difficult time he had to face in Karbala and during his imprisonment in Kufa and Damascus.” ‘Ali ibn Hussain replied “Ash‐ Sham, Ash‐ Sham, Ash –Sham(i.e. Damascus, Syria and capital of the Umayyads) and then explained that “The Ahlul‐Bayt of Nabi Muhammad (SM) were treated worse than animals and presented in the court of Yazid ibn Mu’awiyya like slaves.”
He would be seen mourning for his father and the martyrs of Karbala in this way until his maut some 35 yrs. later. It is also recorded that whenever he saw water he would weep remembering the extreme thirst of the martyrs of Karbala. He held regular mourning sessions in his house. Those who attended these sessions would be served with food in the name of his father H. Hussain. One day a man asked him:
“O son of Rasoolullah when will your weeping and sorrow come to an end.” H. ‘Ali ibn Hussain replied “O servant of Allah. Nabi Yaqub (AS) had twelve sons and only one of them was taken from him. He wept so much and for such a long time that his eyes turned white, his hair turned white and his back bent although his son was still alive. Whereas, I watched as my father and 17 of my family members was slaughtered all around me. How could my sorrow come to an end?
Through this way of mourning he let the whole world know why it was necessary for his father, H. Hussain ibn ‘Ali to give his head instead giving bey’ah to Yazid ibn Mu’awiyya as the rightful ruler of the Muslims. H. Zainab bint ‘Ali (aunt of Imam zainul ‘Abideen) a great figure of sacrifice and strength. She was named by H. Muhammad (SM) himself (a sign of great blessings in Islam). She assisted H. ‘Ali ibn Hussain (RA) by organizing gatherings in Medina to give oral descriptions to the assembled ladies of the events and meaning of Karbala. These participants spread the message all over the Hejaz well into Egypt and Iraq. This method was so successful that Marwan ibn al Hakam the governor of Medina wrote to Yazid about it. On the orders of Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan, H. Zainab (RA) was brought back to Damascus. But because of her determination to disseminate the message of Karbala among the people of Damascus, various Syrian tribes received the pure message of H. Hussain’s sacrifice and she was eventually moved to Egypt. Her speeches and gatherings were spreading meaning of Karbala even in Egypt. She stayed in Egypt for some time but was allegedly brought back Damascus. Some say Egypt and some say Damascus whichever the place she would maut in 62/684 CE AH after a hard life of sacrifice and dedication to the true Message of Islam.
Holy Shrine of Zainab Binte Ali (RA) at Damascus, Syria
Eventually the plot of Yazid’s family, the Umayyad’s to destroy Islam was brought out in the open by H. ‘Ali ibn Hussain’s’ weeping and prayers in the form of Du’a (supplication) and other members of AhlulBayt. He would teach these supplications to his sons H. Muhammad Baqir ibn ‘Ali and H. Zaid ibn ‘Ali. These supplications were later compiled in a book called Sahifa As Sajjadiyyah (The book of Sajjad another name for H. ‘Ali ibn Maude) or Zaboor‐I‐aali Muhammad (Psalms of the house of Muhammad). These messages if preached in any other form than Du’a (supplication) would mean trouble for ‘Ali ibn Hussain from the evil minded Bani Umayyah. It was because of this very method that Bani Umayyad didn’t consider him a threat to the government and left him to his quiet life of prayers and Du’a.
The effect of this teaching and leading a pure life‐style was such that he came to be regarded as an excellent model and an authority of the religion of Islam. At this time there came to be known, seven scholars in Medina Known as “The seven Lawyers of Medina”. They were considered to be authorities of H. Muhammad’s (SM) traditions and law. Not only was he one of them but H. ‘Ali ibn Hussain was considered the best of them. One of the seven, a prominent Tabi’een by the name H. Said ibn Musayyab (RA) who was born in Basra, Iraq during the Caliphate of H. ‘Umar (RA). He was a trustworthy tabi’een and narrated from H. ‘Ali ibn Husain (RA) and considered the Imam with highest regard and respect.
Another lawyer, jurist Shihab Zuhri (who served the Umayyad court but respected Ali ibn Hussein secretly) gave the title of Zainul ‘Abideen to the Imam. Sufyan Thawri (a great taba‐tabi’een jurist) said : “ Once I asked Zuhri as to why he always called the Imam by the name Zainul ‘Abideen.”
He replied : “On the day of Judgment a caller will say where is Zainul ‘Abideen? Then Hussain’s son Ali, will come forward.”
Abdul Malik ibn Marwan continued to rule with an iron hand for about 22 yrs. Abdul Malik maut at age 62 in 86 AH. Historians like Masudi and ibn Athir consider him a cruel and bad ruler. His general Al Hajjaj ibn Yousef was a tyrant who was appointed over the entire Hejaz at one point. At his request Walid ibn Abdul Malik removed H. ‘Umar ibn Abdul ‘Aziz (a just ruler)on the grounds he was soft hearted and kind towards the people and gave shelter to those fleeing al Hajjajs’ cruelty. His cruelty has been summed up in these words:
“While Governor of the Hejaz, al Hajjaj oppressed many Muslims, he severely oppressed the surviving Ansar of Medina. He treated most surviving companions of H. Muhammad very badly. At one time he contemplated raising The City of Medina to the ground. In the course of his long government, he put to death nearly 150,000 men, many on false charges and some of them the best of the Arab race. At the time of his death 50,000 prisoners of both sexes were found rotting in prison cursing the tyrant.”
Marwan ibn al Hakam and his son Abdul Malik is accredited with securing rule for the Marwanid period of the Umayyad Dynasty. Walid ibn Abdul Malik would finish the job. He became Khalif in 86 AH and would rule almost 9 years. By this time, Walid made the government secure from virtually all threats. He turned his attention toward H. ‘Ali ibn Hussain. He regarded H. ‘Ali ibn Hussain as a threat to the government. H. ‘Ali ibn Hussain’s reputation as a man of pure manners had become widespread. This made corruption and the bad living of the ruler look even worse. Walid ibn Abdul Malik developed a chronic paranoia and fear of H. ‘Ali ibn Hussain’s reputation in the community and feared that his growing popularity would result the people turning to him to overthrow the corrupt government. These ill feelings became even stronger after the historical event at the Ka’ba during Hajj. It is narrated that: It was Hajj Season and Hisham ibn Abdul Malik and H. ‘Ali ibn Hussain was trying to reach the black stone. The people gave way to the Imam with respect but Hisham struggled to get through the crowd. This deeply offended Hisham and in a sarcastic manner he inquired to whom was the person the people gave preference. The famous poet Farazdaq arose and spontaneously composed a qasida ( i.e. poem of honor & deep love for someone or something) and addressed Hisham ibn Abdul Malik as such:
“This is he whose footprint is known to the valley of Mecca. He whom the Ka’ba knows and the most frequented sanctuary. He is the son of the best of all servants of Allah. This is the pious, the elect, the pure, and the eminent. This is ‘Ali whose father is the Prophet (SM) and it was through the light of his guidance that the darkened road changed into the straight path. This is the son of Fatimah, if you are ignorant of him; and with his great grandfather prophet hood came to an end.”
Farazdaq was thrown in prison for this and later set free after H. ‘Ali ibn Hussain heard of this incident and paid 12,000 dirham’s for his release. H. Zainul ‘Abideen (RA)had successfully promulgated the truth of Islam so clearly, that provinces from all over the Islamic empire understood the meaning of H. Hussain ibn Ali’s sacrifice not to mention the increasing love for Ahlul-Bayt. Shortly before the Imam was killed, the Caliph Walid tried to appease the people of Medina by firing his henchman and governor Hisham ibn Isma’il after his long rule of persecution. He elected H. ‘Umar ibn Abdul al Aziz (RA) his younger cousin who was already popular for piety, justice and good character. H. ‘Umar(RA) ordered Hisham ibn Isma’il be brought before the people to settle their complaints. People came in large groups and cursed him with harsh words but he was terrified of H. ‘Ali ibn Husayn’s reaction because of his enmity and cruelty towards Ahlul-Bayt. Instead of punishing him in which he expected and well deserved H. ‘Ali ibn Hussain (RA) forgave him and was willing to help him. After that moment even the large mob stopped abusing Hisham.
This would be too much for the Caliph to accept, Walid ibn ‘Abdul Malik gave strict orders to his ex‐governor Hisham ibn Isma’il (father in law of Abdul Malik) to end the life of H. ‘Ali ibn Hussain (RA). This wretched man was already known for his tyranny and mistreatment towards the people of Medina and Ahlul‐Bayt. In 95 AH on 25th Muharram he had H. ‘Ali ibn Hussain (RA) poisoned to death at the age 57 by the hand of the young Umayyad prince Hisham ‘Abdul Malik. He was buried in the famous Baqi cemetery of Medina next to his Uncle H. Hasan ibn ‘Ali (RA).
It is reported from H. Ja’far ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn Husain (RA) that:
“At the time of his death, my grandfather had special instructions concerning his camel which he always used to take on his Hajj journey.” He said to his family, “My maut would affect the camel very badly. After his maut the camel should be left on its own to do as it pleased. The camel was set free. It went straight for H. ‘Ali ibn Husayn’s grave and began to weep. It remained in that state until it died.”
With the passage of time a modest but very beautiful Mausoleum was built to house the remains of this blessed imam. Unfortunately, in 1926 the Wahhabi king of Saudi Dynasty had the mausoleum destroyed.
H. ‘Ali ibn Husain (RA) was known for his deep love for Allah’s worship (‘Ibadah). It is recorded that: the Imam performed Hajj 22 times on foot from Medina to Mecca. He also had a large farm of date trees from which he would feed the needy. He was known to perform two rakat’s of thanks to Allah for each date tree. He treated people kindly and was never instigated to anger.
It has been narrated that H. Fatimah bint ‘Ali (RA) requested H. Jabir ibn Abdullah al Ansari (RA) to convince H. ‘Ali ibn Hussain (RA) to reduce his extensive worship saying:
“O Jabir! You are one the greatest surviving companions of H. Muhammad (SM). Among Ahlul-Bayt, One who has survived us is ‘Ali ibn Hussain and he has engrossed himself in the worship of Allah (swt). His forehead and palms have wounds because extensive prostration and his body have become thin and weak. Therefore, go and speak with him that he may reduce his worship.”
H. Jabir (RA) found H. ‘Ali ibn Hussain sitting in the Mihrab. Seeing H. Jabir the imam gave him respect and made him sit next to himself. He asked H. Jabir about his health and affairs in a very weak voice. H. Jabir (RA) said:
“O son of the Prophet (SM), Allah has created Paradise for you and your followers and created Hell fire for your enemies and opponents. Then why do you tire yourself so much in worship?
H. Ali ibn Hussain replied: “O companion of the Prophet (SM)! Despite his great status in the sight of Allah (swt), Nabi Muhammad (SM) engrossed himself so much in worship his feet were swollen. When asked: “Why do you burden yourself so much when you have nothing to worry about? Nabi Muhammad said “shouldn’t I express my gratitude to Allah and abandon the gratitude of all his favors?”
H. Jabir (RA) said “O son of the Prophet (SM), Always have mercy on the Muslims. It is because of the blessings of your presence that Allah keeps away all the hardships and difficulties of the people, and doesn’t seize them for their wrongdoings.”
H. ‘Ali ibn Hussain (RA) replied: “O Jabir! I shall remain steadfast on the path of my father and forefathers until I meet them.”
When feeding the poor he was recorded narrating this tradition of H. Muhammad (SM):
“If a Muslim does not think of the needs of his Muslim brothers then he is not a Muslim.”
This is why like his forefathers, when it was dark in the night and all the people were sleeping, H. ‘Ali ibn Hussain (RA) would get up, put some food in a sack and carry it on his shoulders to the houses of poor people. He would also cover his face so he wouldn’t be recognized. In this manner he was able to look after at least 100 families of Medina without them knowing it was him until sometime after his maut.
Here are a few of the prominent pupils from the early school of H. ‘Ali ibn Husain (RA):
H. Abu Hamza al Thumali
H. Shihab Zuhri
H. Abu Mikhnaf
H. Tawoos ibn Kaysan
H. Sa’id ibn Mussayyib
H. Aban ibn H. Sa’id ibn Jubayr
Jannatul Baqi, Madina (This use to be seen as Holy Shrines but unfortunately the current Saudi Government had destroyed the Holy Shrines after 1924, Allah will punish them in time.
Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn Hussain (Al-Baqir)
(The Reveler of Secrets of Knowledge)
Muhammad ibn ‘Ali (RA) was born in Medina on the 1st of Rajab 57 AH. He resembled his Great grandfather The Holy Last Messenger (SM). H. Hussain (RA) was his father and his mother was H. Fatimah bint al Hassan (RA). H. Muhammad ibn ‘Ali was a descendant of The Holy Last Messenger (SM) on both sides. He was about 3 when he accompanied his grandfather, father and rest of Ahlul‐Bayt on the journey to Karbala. At that young age he watched his family slaughtered down to a man. After imprisonment he returned to Medina with the rest of Ahlul‐Bayt when he was 4 years old. He was given the title al‐Baqir ( i.e. discriminator /reveler of knowledge) for his ample judicial and religious knowledge and his enthusiasm to teach others that knowledge.
According to Ibn Khalikan : “ Muhammad ibn Ali received the title Baqir due to his ample knowledge of Deen and his uncanny enthusiasm to teach other people.”
H. Baqir’s history has been divided into two parts; the 35 years 61AH/ 683 CE‐96 AH/718 CE) he spent in Medina alongside his blessed father and the period of Imama-mat which stretched up to 20 years (96 AH/718 – 116 AH/738 CE). It was during the 2nd phase he began to disseminate the Islamic knowledge and wisdom he had received from his father with an unparalleled enthusiasm to teach.
Under his guidance, 400 books of Hadith were compiled. H. Baqir (RA) delivered discourses on many things including the nature of the soul and nafs. He resided in Medina throughout his life. He never left it for another city. After his father he was the teacher and pioneer for scientific and cultural development. Masjid an Nabi was the university where he gave his lectures. He wore a ring with the inscription “Might is for Allah” and he also wore the ring of his grandfather H. Hussain ibn Ali (RA) which had the inscription that read “Surely Allah attains his purpose”. This is a clear indication that he devoted himself to Allah and clung to him strongly.
There’s a tradition that H. Jabir ibn Abdullah al Ansari (RA) was in the presence of Nabi Muhammad (SM), he asked Muhammad (SM) about the names of his descendants from his daughter H. Fatimah and ‘Ali (RA), Nabi Muhammad(SM) told him:
“O Jabir you will have a long life and although you will go blind. You will meet the 5th in line of my descendants whose name will be my name, who will walk like me and who will be the 5th Imam of the time, when you will meet him, give my salams to him.”
As predicted by H. Muhammad (SM), H. Jabir (RA) had a long life and became blind in his old age. But he devoutly waited for the time he would meet the 5th descendant of Nabi Muhammad (SM). One day while he was waiting in the streets of Medina, he heard someone walking towards him. The sound of the footsteps reminded of the way The Holy Prophet used to walk. H. Jabir stood up stopped the man and asked him his name. He replied, Muhammad, Jabir then asked whose son? He replied “ Ali ibn Hussain. H. Jabir immediately recognized the man he was talking to was the 5th Imam. He kissed his hand and told him the message from The Holy Prophet (SM) and that he sent his salaams to him. H. Muhammad al Baqir took him to his home, asked his friends to gather as many people as he could. When they the all assembled in the house, H. Jabir narrated the whole story again. The gathering began to weep because of the plight and current oppression of the rightful leaders of the Muslims.
He inherited and exemplified the manners and habits of his grandfather Nabi Muhammad (sm).
Muhammad ibn Munkadir said:
“Because I perceived that Muhammad al Baqir worked too hard I said to myself he is after the material world and I must stop and admonish him, so one day I saw him exhausted and perspiring due to ample hard work in the hot scorching sun, I went near him saluted him and said “oh son of the Prophet (SM) why are you so much after the wealth of the world? If death overcomes you in such a condition what would you do then? He said “This is the best of my times because I work in it so that I do not become needy towards you people and others, if Allah gives me death in this condition I will be much happy since I am busy in his prayers and obedience. I got informed about this matter and knew that I was wrong; I apologize to him saying “I wanted to admonish and advise you, but you admonish and informed me.”
To rule and administer the Muslim world was certainly the right of Ahlul-Bayt but Arabs who had no right acceded to the temporal power. The Ahlul-Bayt had to lead calm and quiet lives despite the persecution and hardships they faced under these rulers. As such they could have refused to give advice or council to the government of the day. But the moral height of these noble Imams rose above standards of commoners. Like H. ‘Ali who cooperated with contemporary Khalifs and offered historical and sound council concerning the affairs of the Muslims. These descendants of H. Muhammad followed the same example and never hesitated to give well balanced advice to their contemporary rulers. H. Muhammad al Baqir was no exception. The Umayyad Government had till then no currency of its own. The currency of Byzantines/Eastern Roman Empire was still valid tender in Damascus. But during the reign as early as Walid ibn Abdul Malik, there arose a rift between Empires when the later decided to stamp a new currency with a phrase that would be considered derogatory and offensive to The Holy Last Messenger (SM). Walid conveyed a committee in which prominent scholars participated. H. Muhammad al Baqir held the view that the Government out to strike its own currency stamped with kalimah tayyibah on both sides. This suggestion was unanimously approved and the first coin was minted. Some of these coins are on exhibit in the British Museum in 1988 at the event of the Islamic art exhibition in London. A note is attached to this displayed that says that these coins were minted in the time of Walid ibn Abdul Malik at the advice of Muhammad al Baqir.
H. Muhammad al‐Baqir (RA) had eight children six of them was male and the others was female.
1. Ja’far as‐Sadiq
5. ‘Ali al‐Riza
6. ‘Ali The females were
1. H. Zainab
2. Umm Salama Yaqubi (famous historian) once said: “Muhammad ibn Ali split open knowledge. He scrutinized it and examined the depths of it so that it could be spread to all people truly and correctly.”
Ibn Hajar al Haythami (famous scholar) once said:
“Imam Muhammad al Baqir has disclosed the secrets of knowledge and wisdom and unfolded the principles of spiritual and religious guidance. Nobody can deny his exalted character, his God given knowledge; his divinely gifted wisdom and his obligation and gratitude towards the spreading of knowledge. He was sacred and a highly talented spiritual leader and for this reason he was titled “al Baqir” (The revealer of Secrets of Knowledge). He was kind of heart, spotless in character, sacred by soul and noble by nature. This Imam devoted all of his time in submission to Allah. (in advocating the teachings of The Holy Last Messenger (SM) and his descendants). It is beyond the power of man to count the deep impression of knowledge and guidance left by the Imam on the hearts of the faithful. His sayings in devotion and abstinence, in knowledge and wisdom and in religious exercise and submission to Allah are so great in number that this volume of this book is quiet in sufficient to cover them all.” Referring to his book as Sawaiqu‐l‐muhriqah pg. 120)
Umayyad’s rulers were busy with expansion of the empire as far as Central Asia and Spain during the Khalifate of Sulayman and Yazid (sons of Abdul Malik ibn Marwan) so H. Muhammad al‐Baqir (RA) found a brief period of peace. It would be in the His ham’s of H. Umar ibn ‘Abdul ‘Aziz who served between Sulayman and Yazid’s administration that Ahlul‐Bayt would enjoy this peace. (Umar Abdul ‘Aziz is recorded as the best Umayyad Khalif) He was son of Abdul ‘Aziz ibn Marwan (the grandson of H. Umar ibn Khattab). He lifted from them a deal of atrocities and prohibited the cursing of H. ‘Ali from the pulpit (a practice which lasted 90 yrs). Substituting it with this line from H. Qur’an:
“God commands justice, the doing of good and liberality to kith and kin. He forbids all shameful deeds, injustice and rebellion. He instructs you so that you’ll receive admonition.” This is still being read in Friday Khutbah all over the world. When H. Muhammad al Baqir met H. ‘Umar ibn Abdul ‘Aziz for the first time he found him weeping continually for the long years of injustice inflicted upon the descendants of The Holy Last Messenger (SM). H. Muhammad al Baqir counseled him and asked for what wrong doing was he brought here to rectify? It was the Fadak, which The Holy Prophet gifted to H. Fatimah and her descendants. As quoted in Bihar Anwar vol 4:
“Umar took some writing pad and pen and wrote. “ In the name of God, The Most Merciful The Most Compassionate. This is what Umar ibn Aziz handed back to Muhammad ibn ‘Ali to rectify the wrong doing which was done regarding Fadak.”
Once it was given back it would be from these lands and orchards that schools in Medina were erected by H. Muhammad al Baqir. This is the time period where historians recorded thousands of people from all over the world came to Medina to learn Qur’an, Hadith and Islamic Law. Hisham ibn Abdul Malik succeeded Umar ibn Abdul ‘Aziz in 100 AH. /722 CE. Hisham was an impious murderer as a youth now in adult hood he was stone heart, immoral and racist. His prejudice against non‐Arabs caused him to double their taxes. His taxes and unjust rule of state made normal living very hard for the people. It was in his reign the revolution of H. Zaid ibn ‘Ali would begin which was really a continuation of H. Hussain’s sacrifice against tyrant rulers that will occur from time to time until H. Mahdi appears.
H. Muhammad ibn ‘Ali had a brother, Zaid ibn ‘Ali who was also born in Medina 73 AH/695 CE. There’s a tradition that once The Holy Last Messenger looked at H. Zaid ibn Harithah and began to weep and said:
“The martyr in the sake of Allah. They crucify my people, the oppressed of my progeny. His name is thus.” Then The Holy Last Messenger (SM) pointed at Zayd ibn Harithah and said “come closer to me your name became mole dear to me because it is the same as my dear child Zaid.”
Historians have regarded H. Zaid ibn ‘Ali as a righteous Shaheed against what was regarded as the corrupt leadership of an unjust Umayyad Khalif Hisham ibn Abdul Malik. If is even reported that Mujtahid Imam Abu Hanifah (founder of the largest Sunni school of jurisprudence)gave financial support to H. Zaid’s revolt and called on others to join Zaid’s movement. H. Abu Hanifah said about H. Zaid ibn ‘Ali:
“I met with Zayd and I never saw in his generation a person more knowledgeable as quick a thinker or more eloquent than he was.”
H. Muhammad ibn ‘Ali was poisoned ibn 114 AH/738 CE. During these times Ahlul‐Bayt faced extreme hardships and H. Zaid went to see the Khalif about these issues. He went to Damascus to complain about Yusuf ibn ‘Amru, the governor of Iraq. The Khalif instead of greeting him as a direct descendant of the Holy Prophet (SM) abused him with such abominable language it cannot be repeated. Here is some of the dialogue between H. Zaid ibn ‘Ali and Hisham The tyrant after the exchange of some hot words: Hisham shouted at Zaid saying:
“I have heard that you mention the Khalifate for yourself. Still you are inappropriate for it. Moreover, you are the son of a slave wife. H. Zaid refuted Hisham saying: “Surely, mothers do not hold back men from their aims. Indeed H. Isma’il’s mother was a slave for H. Ishaq’s mother. However, Allah appointed him a prophet, made him the father of the Arabs and brought from his back the best of Prophets, Muhammad (SM). Hisham couldn’t control himself he began to shake all over and in a fit of rage shouted “what does Muhammad al‐ Baqarah do.”(al‐Baqarah meaning the cow instead of al Baqir) H. Zaid (RA) was hurt when Hisham abused his brother in these words turned to him and said “The Holy Last Messenger called him al Baqir why do you call him al Baqarah? That is because of the great difference between you and him. You will oppose him in the hereafter as you have opposed him in this world. He will enter Jannah and you will enter Hell Fire.” Hisham couldn’t control himself and had his police remove H. Zaid ibn ‘Ali from his court.”
After this disgraceful treatment H. Zayd left Syria for Kufa where he raised and army against the Umayyad. Zaid recited the following before the war “Disgraceful life and honorable death.” Although he fought bravely Zayd was killed in battle on 2nd of Safar in 120 A.H. /740 AD at the age of 42 by Yusuf ibn ‘Amr ath-Thaqafi (Umayyad governor). His son Yahya took his noble body from the battlefield and buried him some miles outside the city near the river bank causing water to flow over it. Zayd’s body was retrieved and his head was cut off and sent to Hisahm ibn Abdul Malik in Syria. His body was hung on gallows for 4 years until Walid ibn Yazid ibn Abdul Malik became Khalif in 126 AH. He ordered that the skeleton be taken down from the gallows burnt and the ashes scattered to the wind.
This movement and the continuance of that movement by his son Yahya ibn Zaid in Khurasan made the atmosphere for all Ahlul‐Bayt hostile. Especially for H. Muhammad al Baqir whom was the target of most of their harassment.
The Umayyad rulers harassed him often for fear of his popularity and influence. H. Muhammad al Baqir never expressed any interest nor participated in any political matters except when the Khalif invited him. Even though was devoted to a peaceful living devoted to people’s spiritual guidance, he was not tolerated by the Government. Here is an example of Hisham’s treatment of Muhammad al Baqir:
“Hisham wrote to his governor of Medina instructing him to send Muhammad al Baqir and his son Ja’far as Sadiq to Damascus intending to humiliate them in front of an audience. When they reached Damascus he kept them waiting for three days. On the fourth day, he called them in his presence. He sat on a throne surrounded by his armed guard. In the centre of the courtyard, a
target was set in which the elite were shooting arrows. Immediately H. Muhammad al Baqir entered, Hisham bluntly asked him to shoot arrows with the others. H. Muhammad al Baqir tried to evade his orders but Hisham insisted planning to ridicule him. Since H. Muhammad al Baqir led a secluded life, Hisham thought he wouldn’t have any connection with the martial arts. Compelled by Hisham, H. Muhammad al Baqir took the bow handling it very skillfully; he shot a few arrows continuously, all hitting the center of the spot. Burst of praise burst from the elite standing at the right and left of Hisham. Hisham dismissed H. Muhammad al Baqir from his majlis.
”This only increased his enmity toward the Ahlul-Bayt and he sent H. Muhammad al Baqir and his son back to Medina. Hisham was not happy with the progress H. Muhammad al Baqir was making in Medina as his teachings reached deep into the Muslim empire. Hisham feared this spiritual influence would lead to political influence which would jeopardize the Umayyad family from being head of the state. The more his prestige grew the more intolerable his existence became for the Umayyad’s. At last the same soundless weapon was used, poison which was used by these cunning monarchs quiet often to eliminate their opponents or suspects. A saddle was presented to H. Muhammad al Baqir from Ibrahim ibn Walid (governor of Medina and nephew of Hisham ibn Malik) in which poison was applied most skillfully. When he mounted it the poison affected his whole body. After few days of extreme pain he died. He departed this world 7th of Dhul-Hijjah 114 AH at the age 57. His pure sublime body is buried in Jannatul Baqi underneath the same dome of H. Hasan ibn ‘Ali and H. ‘Ali ibn Hussain.
Ja’far ibn Muhammad (As Sadiq)
Light of truth and reality
H. Ja’far ibn Muhammad was born in Medina 17th of Rabi’a-l-Awwal 83 AH/705 CE on the same date as The Holy Last Messenger (saw). He received two lines of inheritance from Nabi Muhammad (saw) and H. Abu Bakr the secrets of ’Ilm (knowledge). In him the two lineages met and for that reason he was called Maqam-Nabuwwa and Maqami-Sadiqqiya. In him was reflected the light of truth and reality. This light would show forth and knowledge would spread widely through him throughout his lifetime. He was born to Muhammad al Baqir and H. Umm Farwah (great granddaughter of H. Abu Bakr as Sadiq) His whole life was an enlightened lesson of true Islam. He was also considered to be the example and specimen of the Islamic ethic moral and conduct. He studied under his grandfather and when his grandfather passed away he studied under his father Muhammad al Baqir. He was well versed in Qur’anic science and jurisprudence. He helped form many of the Sunni laws regarding inheritance, taxes, commerce and personal status. He married H. Fatimah bint Hasan who bore him two sons ‘Isma’il (ancestor of the Fatimid Khalifate through his son) and ‘Abdullah al-aftah. When H. Fatimah passed away he married the freed slave H. Hamidah Khatan who bore him Musa al-Kazim and Muhammad al-Dibaj. H. Ja’far (RA) used to send the women to learn the tenants of Islam from her, and used to remark about her:
“Hamidah is pure from every impurity like the ingot of pure gold.”
H. Ja’far ibn Muhammad (RA) was a polymath, astronomer, alchemist, Imam, Islamic scholar, Islamic theologian, writer, philosopher, physician, physicist and scientist. He rejected all positions of fame for isolation. One of his contemporaries.
H. ‘Umar ibn Abi Muqaddam said:
“When I look at Ja’far ibn Muhammad I see the lineage and the secrets of Nabi Muhammad (SM) united in him.”
He was the teacher of the famous chemist Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber), Imam Abu Hanifah and Imam Malik (ibn Anas). ‘
Allama Ash Shibli writes in his Siratun-Nu’man:
“Abu Hanifah remained for a considerable period in the attendance with H. Ja’far as Sadiq acquiring from him a great deal of knowledge of fiqh and hadith.”
Imam Malik recorded 12 hadith from H. Ja’far ibn Muhammad in his famous Muwatta.
H. Ja’far ibn Muhammad narrated from his father, Muhammad al Baqir that a man came to my grandfather, Zainul ‘Abideen, and said:
“Tell me about Abu Bakr! My grandfather said “You mean as Sadiq?” The man said “how do you call him as Sadiq when he is against you, (Ahlul‐Bayt)?” He replied, “Woe to you. The Holy Prophet (SM) called him as Sadiq, and Allah accepted this title. If you want to come to me, keep the love for Abu Bakr and ‘Umar in your heart.”
He took knowledge of hadith from two sources: from his father H. ‘Ali and from his maternal grandfather H. Qassim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr. He also sat in the hadith circles of H. ‘Urwa ibn Zubair, ‘Aata ibn Rabi’ah, H. Nafi’i and Shihab al Zuhri. The two Sufyans, Sufyan al Thawri and Sufyan ibn ‘Uyayna, Imam Malik, Abu Hanifah and alQattan all narrated traditions through him he was one of the greatest mujtahids of Median.
Imam at Tabari narrates that Wahb said:
“I heard Layth ibn Sa’d say, “ I went on Hajj in 113 AH., and after I prayed the obligatory afternoon prayer I was reading some lines of Holy Qur’an and I saw someone sitting beside me invoking Allah saying “Ya Allah, Ya Allah, Ya Allah repeatedly until he lost his breath. He continued by saying Ya Hayy, Ya Hayy, Ya Hayy repeatedly until he lost his breath. He then raised his hands and said, “O Allah, I have the desire to eat grapes, O Allah give me some. And my Jubba (robe) has become tattered O Allah please grant me a new one. Layth ibn Sa’d said he had hardly finished his words when a basket of grapes appeared in front of him, at a time when grapes weren’t in season Beside the basket of grapes two robes (cloaks) appeared more beautiful than I have ever seen before. I said O partner let me share with you. He replied “how are you a partner.” I replied you were praying and I was saying Amin. Then Ja’far said “Then come eat with me, and he gave me one of the two cloaks. He walked off until he met a man who said “O son of Rasul ullah (SM), cover me because I have nothing but these tattered garments to cover me. He immediately gave him the cloak he had just received. I asked that man who is that he replied “that is the great Imam, Ja’far as-Sadiq. I ran after him but he had disappeared.”
Sufyan Thawri said Ja’far as Sadiq used to say to me from memory: “If Allah bestows on you a favor, then thank him excessively because he said “If you are thankful then Allah will increase for you (14/7).”
He also said: “If the door of provision is closed for you then make a great deal of istaghfir (begging forgiveness), because Allah said “Seek forgiveness of your Lord, surely your Lord is oft-Forgiving 11/52.
”He said to me: “If you are upset by the tyranny and oppression of a sultan that you witness, say “There is no change and power except with Allah, because it is the key to relief and one of the treasures of paradise.”
H. Ja’far ibn Muhammad said: “The nun (letter ‘n’) at the beginning of Surah 68 represents the light of pre-eternity, out of which Allah created all creation, all of which is Muhammad. That is why he said in the 4th line of the same Surah “Thou art of a sublime nature” that is: you were privileged with that light from pre-eternity.”
The people who transmitted on his authority the religious sciences, carried with them across many countries his fame and prestige which spread throughout the Islamic Empire. The transmitters of Hadith have not related from any of the progeny of H. ‘Ali as much as they do Ja’far as Sadiq (RA).
H. Ja’far ibn Muhammad lived in violent times and his uncle (Zaid ibn ‘Ali) led a rebellion against the Umayyads which he did not participate in. He laid to rest many of his relatives who were killed by hands of the Umayyad clan. He established Taqiyyah (a doctrine in Islam which states that it is acceptable to hide ones true opinions if by revealing it may put others in danger.) He spent his life in worship and acts of piety for the sake of Allah. Hisham ibn Malik was succeeded by Walid 2nd ibn Yazid 2nd. Walid 2nd is remembered in history for his infatuation which worldly pleasures more than religion and his oppressive actions against his political foes. He quickly attracted enmity and opposition from all over the Islamic empire. He began a process of systematically executing anyone who opposed his rule.
In 122 AH/744 CE Yazid 3rd ibn Walid 1st proclaimed Caliphate in Damascus and his army tracked down and killed Walid 2nd. Yazid 3rd passed away after 6 months of his reign. Yazid 2nd appointed his brother Ibrahim as his successor but Marwan 2nd (grandson of Marwan 1st) led an army from the northern frontier and entered Damascus December 744 where he was proclaimed Caliph. He moved the Capital from Damascus to Harran (present day Turkey). Marwan 2nd Caliphate was spent entirely devoted to trying to keep the ‘Umayyad Empire together. Marwan 2nd faced difficulty in various provinces he managed to reestablish control of most of the areas but a more serious problem had developed in Khurasan “the Hashimiyyah movement.” The Hashimiyyah movement was led by the Abbasids (descendants of H. ‘Abbas the youngest and dear uncle of H. Muhammad (SM) to overthrow the Umayyad Khalifate. The word Hashimiyyah refers especially Abu Hashim the grandson of H. ‘Ali and son of H. Muhammad ibn Hanafiyyah. Abu Hashim passed away in 717 CE in the house of H. Muhammad ibn Hanafiyyah who was the head of the Abbasid family. Before passing he named Abu Hashim as his successor. This tradition allowed the Abbasids to rally support from the Kaysanite Shi’a in Khurasan. (Who had supported H. Mukhtar’s revolt and were already supporters of Muhammad ibn Hanafiyyah.)
A group of Bani Hashim met at ‘Abwa. Among them was Abu Abbas Ibrahim ibn Muhammad, Abu Ja’far al Mansur, Salih ibn ‘Ali, ‘Abdullah ibn Hasan al Mathanna, his two sons Muhammad and Ibrahim and Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn Uthman. Salih ibn ‘Ali addressed the group saying:
“You know that you are the ones towards whom the people turn their eyes and that Allah has brought you together in this place. Therefore give allegiance to one from among you, which you should give to him genuine dedication of yourselves. Bind yourselves so that you may receive victory, for He is the best bringer of victory.”
H. ‘Abdullah ibn Hasan al Mathanna praised and glorified Allah and said: “You know that this son of mine is the Mahdi (Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah). Therefore, come let us pledge allegiance to him.”
“Why you are deceiving yourselves” demanded H. Ja’far ibn Muhammad. “By Allah, you know that there is no one else to whom the people would take greater strides or greater speed to answer than they would this man.” (Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah) “True” they all said “this is he, whom we acknowledge” so they all pledged him allegiance and took Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah by the hand.
‘Isa ibn Ja’far (RA) said: “Abdullah ibn Hasan’s’ messenger came to my father saying: “Come to us. We have gathered for an important affair.”
‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abdullah said to those present: “ You don’t want Ja’far ibn Muhammad here for you fear that he would cause dissension among you in your affair.”
‘Isa ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Muhammad (RA) reported: “My father sent me to see what they had gathered for. So I went to them. Ja’far ibn Muhammad sent ‘Abdullah al Arqat ibn ‘Ali ibn Hussain and we went to them.”
Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Hasan was praying on a folded carpet from a saddle. My father has sent me to you I told them to ask you why have you gathered together.”
“We have gathered her” Abdullah ibn Hasan said “to pledge allegiance to the Mahdi Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Hasan.”
Ja’far ibn Muhammad arrived and ‘Abdullah ibn Hasan made room for him beside him. He repeated what he said before but H. Ja’far ibn Muhammad said don’t do it. “The time (for al Mahdi) has not arrived. If you (‘Abdullah) consider this son of yours to be the Mahdi he is not, nor is this the time for him.
Because you are one of our most revered elders, we will not forsake you in order to pledge allegiance to your son, even if you only intend him to rise in anger for Allah’s cause, to command the good and forbid the evil.”
Abdullah became angry and said: “I know that the facts are opposite of what you are saying.” “ By Allah, you have not been acquainted with the knowledge of the unseen world. Rather it is envy for my son which has prompted you to this attitude.
“By Allah, that is not what prompts me” replied H. Ja’far ibn Muhammad: “but this man, his brother and his sons. He then tapped with his hand the back of Abu ‘Abbas and he tapped with his hand the shoulder of ‘Abdullah ibn Hasan.”
“By Allah, the Caliphate is not for you or your sons.” Ja’far told him, but it is for them (Abbasids).
Your two sons will be killed. He got up leaning on the arm of ‘Abdul ‘Aziz ibn Imran al Zuhri, he continued “Do you see the owner of the yellow cloak?” ( i.e. Abu Ja’far al Mansur) Yes he replied.
“By Allah, we have been foretold that he Abu Ja’far al Mansur will kill him (Muhammad ibn Abdullah). “Will he kill Muhammad asked Abdul ‘Aziz. Yes Ja’far replied. ‘Abdul ‘Aziz reported: “I said to myself. By Allah the Lord of the Ka’ba he is envious of him.” But then by Allah, I had not left this world before I saw him (Abu Ja’far al Mansur) kill them both.” When H. Ja’far ibn Muhammad said this the people arose and separated. ‘Abdus Samad and Abu Ja’far followed him and asked him “Abu ‘Abdullah do you really say this. “Yes by Allah I say and I know it.”
It is recorded that whenever he saw Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah his eyes would flow with tears and then he would say: “I would sacrifice my life for him. The people say that he is the Mahdi while is to be killed (Shaheed). He has not been written as one of the Khalifs of this community.”
In 97 AH/719 the Hashimiyyah movement began the mission to seek adherents from Khurasan. There program began as Da’wah they sought support for Ahlul-Bayt of Muhammad (SM) without making explicit mention of the Abbasid. This mission found success among Arab and non-Arab although the latter would play a more important role in the growth of the movement. In 124 AH/746 CE, Abu Muslim al Khurasani, a Abbasid general assumed leadership of the Hashimiyyah movement. 125 AH/747 CE Abu Muslim successful initiated an open rebellion against Umayyad rule, which was carried out under a black flag. He soon established control of Khurasan expelling its Umayyad governor Nasr ibn Sayyar then dispatched an army westward. In 127 AH/749 Kufa fell and in November of that same year Abu ‘Abbas was recognized as the Khalif in the Kufa mosque. Marwan 2nd mobilized troops from Harran and advanced towards Iraq.
In January 128 AH/750 CE the forces met in The Battle of Zab were the Umayyads were defeated and humiliated. Damascus fell to the Abbasids in April, and in August Marwan was killed in Egypt. The tombs of the Ummayyads in Syria were desecrated except H. ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdul ‘Aziz (RA) and most of the remaining Umayyad family members were tracked down and killed. One grandson of Hisham, Abdur Rahman 1rst survived and established the Ummayyad Kingdom in Andulus (Moorish Iberia was where he continued the ‘Umayyad Khalifate). That would sum up Umayyad rule in the East for almost 100 years.
In the Durul‐Munthar (The scattered pearls), a tafsir of H. Imam Suyuti d. 911 AH. He said concerning line 17/60 were he quotes traditions which describe the Umayyad as the “cursed tree” with the exception of H. ‘Umar ibn Abdul ‘Aziz.
According to many Arab sources Abu ‘Abbas consolidated the Islamic empire by 128 AH/750 CE. In order to eliminate any future Umayyad threat he invited all the remaining Umayyads to a dinner party where he had all of them beaten to death before the first course which was then served to the guest. For this ruthless act he earned the title As Saffah (The Blood Shedder). Abu ‘Abbas then turned on the descendants of H. ‘Ali and H. Fatimah and claimed the Khalifate for himself. A Western historian writes about this incident: “ The Abbasids’ rose in the name of Ali’s descendants and on the shoulders of their shi’a i.e. their supporters. After the success they changed their attitude towards them and their oppression of Fatimids and their supporters increased in magnitude and intensity.”
Muhammad Ahmad Burayq reported:
“The revolution was really for the Fatimids, because the Khurasanis were attached to the descendants of H. ‘Ali not the descendants of H. ‘Abbas. That is why As Saffah and his successors always kept their eye open and suppressed the spread of support for the descendants of H. ‘Ali in Khurasan. They encouraged poets to praise them and degrade the descendants of H. ‘Ali by paying them handsomely.”
This betrayal alienated H. ‘Ali’s descendants especially from H. Hasan lineage. Students came from far and wide to learn explanations of Qur’an, traditions, rules of shari’ah and theology. Abu ‘Abbas died of small pox in 132 AH/754 CE after a short rule of 4 yrs. Abu ‘Abbas ‘Abdullah ibn Muhammad (a descendant of H. ‘Abbas) born 83 AH/721 CE and died 132 AH/754 was the first Abbasid Khalif.
He appointed his brother Abu Ja’far al Mansur and then ‘Isa ibn Musa as his successors. Abu Ja’far ‘Abdullah ibn Muhammad al Mansur born in 95 AH/714 CE and d. 158 AH/775 CE became the second ‘Abbasid Khalif in 136 AH/754 CE. Upon ascendancy he ordered the assassination of Abu Muslim Khurasani to avoid any opponent for power. He deposed his nephew ‘Isa ibn Musa ibn Muhammad due to suspicion of corruption and replaced him with his son al Mahdi as his successor which he had allegiance sworn to him during his lifetime.
This led to another example of preserving the legacy of H. Muhammad (SM). His name was Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Hasan al Muthanna ibn Hasan ibn ‘Ali ibn Abu Talib. In terms of physical appearance and demeanor he resembled H. Hamza ibn ‘Abdul Muttalib (The great Shaheed of Uhud and uncle of The Holy Last Messenger (SM). He participated in H. Zaid ibn ‘Ali’s revolt, he was one of the young men who was present in the initial meeting in Masjid an Nabi during the final years of Umayyad rule in 132 AH. He was commonly known as Muhammad (al Nafs azZakiyya – meaning pure soul) who attempted a revolt in Medina against al Mansur and the ‘Abbasids in December 6, 145 AH/762. His teachings and example was very instrumental in bringing down the Umayyad Khalifate years before his revolt against the Abbasids.
Initially he hoped to revolt against the corrupt Ummayad clan, when the children of Abu Hashim paid allegiance to him at Abwa (note : Abwa is SW of Medina were Nabi Muhammad (SM) passed through on his way to sack the caravans in Badr 2 AH. H. Musa ibn Ja’far will also be born in this town.) Among them was Ibrahim as Saffah ibn Muhammad and Abu Ja’far al Mansur ibn Muhammad. (note: that this Muhammad, Ibrahim and Mansur’s’ father was a great grandson of al Abbas ibn Muttalib (RA.) It soon became clear that those who had paid allegiance to him would desert him. He took to seclusion and for 10 years he disguised himself and moved stealthily. The ‘Abbasids had become tyrants that took power by the sword and many prominent scholars considered their rule illegitimate. He returned to Medina after the ‘Abbasid consolidation of their form of deviant political government. The majority of the Muslims of Medina, established Ashshura process, as was supposed to be the case for the past 100 odd years, agreed that H. Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah (RA) qualifies to lead the Muslims. This was a quality that was lost in previous years. Abu Ja’far al Mansur was well informed of these situations. Therefore, he forced H. Imam Malik (RA) (note: Imam Malik is one of the four renowned fuqahah and founder of the Maliki Madhhab) to express his opinion; he said: “there’s a tradition where The Holy Prophet (SM) said:
“If a man is forced to divorce his wife, the divorce would be invalid.”
Which meant the bey’at of Abu Ja’far al Mansur ibn Muhammads’ is illegitimate. Because of this H. Imam Malik (RA) was tortured, and persecuted. He was publicly flogged in public until he bled white. Abu Ja’far al Mansur ibn Muhammad wanted to preempt the revolt of Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah (RA), so what did he do? He brought Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah’s brothers, cousins, immediate supporters and among them was a great grandson of Ameerul Mu’mineen Uthman ibn Affan (RA). He put them in a dungeon next to Furaat in which they could not know night from day; some of them began to die and their bodies decomposed in that dungeon.
Eventually on 1st of Rajab 145 AH and 12th of Ramadan he raised the Zulfiqar and declared war against al Mansur and the ‘Abbasids who had become tyrants and oppressors of a new scale. Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah (RA) raised a sizable army and seized Medina. He left Medina and left for Mecca and Yemen. He returned to Medina and just like two previously events which H. Hussain ibn ‘Ali and H. Zaid ibn ‘Ali ibn Husain (RA) was abandoned, he was abandoned on the battle field as well. Initially, he commanded an army of at 100,000 men but after these tactics he was left with little support of 313 troops. While the Medinan Fighters were engaged, the 4,000 ‘Abbasid army hoisted 300 bodies of dead Medinan fighters on crosses that extended from Thaniyat al Wadaa to the house of Umar ibn ‘Abdul ‘Aziz. As a result, his army lost all zeal and fight and was overpowered on all sides from the huge ‘Abbasid army were Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah (RA) fell a martyr. He was slain at a place called Ahjar uz Zat (a place which is not a part of Masjid an Nabi). His Mazar was demolished by Wahhabi militant in 1925. (note: The Holy Prophet (SM) arrived in Medina after his flight from Mecca, how warmly was he received at Thaniyat al Wadaa? Look how evil regimes always destroy and attack places to irritate Nabi Muhammad (SM). The bodies remained their days until the foul smell forced the ‘Abbasids to take them down. When they took the bodies down, they went up to a mountain and threw these bodies into a yahudi (Jewish)cemetery called al Mafrah. H. Abu al Ghifari narrated:
“Rasoolullah said: “How will you feel when one of my sons will be butchered near Ahjar uz Zat? (an indication a prophecy of his martyrdom).”
It is worth mentioning here that just like in H. Zaid’s’ uprising H. Imam Abu Hanifah and H. Imam Malik (RA) extended great service and support for H. Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah (RA). H. Imam Abu Hanifah (RA)is reported to have extended at least 20,000 dinars. When have mentioned H. Imam Malik (RA) earlier in the chapter. These were steps that earned Imam Abu Hanifah (RA) and Imam Malik (RA)imprisonment and later poisoning from the ‘Abbasids.
Among his top supporters were H. Ja’far as Sadiq (RA), his two sons Musa and ‘Abdullah (RA), H. Zaid’s (the great martyr) sons Ibrahim, ‘Isa (RA) and others. ‘Isa ibn Zaid (RA) would flee after Ibrahim’ assassination and passed away in seclusion during the ‘Abbasid Caliphate of al Mahdi. It is recorded that even though H. Ja’far ibn Muhammad (RA) did not openly involve himself however, it is clear that he allowed his sons to join the revolt along with other Sayyids. It was during these times the ‘Abbasids began a campaign exterminating Sayyids from Hasani or Hussain bloodline. They were extremely harsh and even killed imams, scholars or any individual who was capable of helping them. The descendants of Zayd ibn Ali were targeted most ruthlessly. The ‘Abbasids hired spies and set up rewards for their capture. For instance when ‘Isa ibn Zayd passed away secretly, Harun al Rashid arrested an imprisoned his son Ahmad ibn ‘Isa merely on suspicion. ‘Idris would be the only among them would achieve relative victory. He fled NW Africa and raised the Idrisid government and campaigned against the ‘Abbasids from there which is today’s Morocco. H. Abdullah ibn Hussein (al- Mahdi billah) (RA) a direct descendant of H. Ja’far as- Sadiq (RA) fled the Hejaz and Found the Fatimid Caliphate in Egypt throughout N. Africa.
Al Athir recounts an incident when Al Mansur ordered Rabi’I to bring H. Ja’far as Sadiq to him. When al Mansur saw him he said: “May God kill me if I don’t kill you? You are attempting to harm my authority and you are seeking treachery against me.” By God I am By God I am not replied H. Ja’far ibn Muhammad (RA). “Nor do I want to and If you have been told so, it is by a liar.” However, even if I had done so, Nabi Yousef (AS) was treated badly (by his brothers) and he forgave them while he was Aziz of Egypt in the time of Fir’ awn Dynasty.) Nabi Yunus (AS) suffered tribulation (being swallowed by the fish) and was patient and Nabi Suleiman (AS) received gifts and was thankful.” These men were prophets and your lineage goes back to them. Indeed replied Mansur. Come up here. He went up and Mansur continued: “so and so has informed me about what you have been saying.” Bring him Commander of the Faithful so that he may confront me with that said H. Ja‘far ibn Muhammad (RA). He had the man presented and said “Did you really hear what you reported about Ja’far ibn Muhammad? Yes he replied. Mansur replied ‘May I be outside Gods’ power and strength and may I seek refuge in my own power and strength if I lie that H. Ja’far ibn Muhammad (RA) did such and such and said such and such. The man paused for a minute and then said on oath and almost immediately he was struck down at the leg. Drag him by his leg and throw him out. May God curse him! Mansur said.”
Towards the end of his life H. Ja’far ibn Muhammad (RA) was placed under severe restrictions by al‐Mansur. He had ordered the killing and torture of so many Sayyids that his actions surpassed the actions of most of the heedless Umayyads. At his order Sayyids would be arrested in groups, thrown into deep dark prisons and tortured until they passed away. Some were beheaded and some were buried alive, being placed at the base or between the walls of buildings that were constructed over them. Al Mansur had H. Ja’far ibn Muhammad (RA) arrested and brought to Sammarra were he was kept under intense supervision. During this period al Mansur was very discourteous to him, and several times plotted to kill him. H. Ja’far ibn Muhammad (RA) was released and returned to Medina were he would live the rest of his life in seclusion.
Abu Ja’far al Mansur’s perfumer Jamra related an unsettling story about his mistreatment of H. ‘Ali and H. Fatima’s descendants. He relates: “While Mansur was leaving for what would be his last pilgrimage, he left his daughter in law, Rita with keys to his storerooms but with instructions that under no circumstances a certain door should be opened until she was sure he was dead. When he passed Rita and her husband Muhammad ibn Mansur al Mahdi rushed excitedly to this special store. When Rita and al Mahdi opened it, they were horrified to find corpses of all of the Sayyids that al Mansur had murdered in his lifetime. There were many corpses of all ages including infants and seniors. Each corpse left ear was tagged with the name and genealogy, evidencing al Mansur brutality towards Ahlul‐Bayt.”
Al Mansur developed and extreme paranoia for H. Ja’far ibn Muhammad (RA) and had him imprisoned many times then finally he ordered him to be poisoned to death. H. Ja’far as Sadiq (RA)passed away from poison in 148/760 CE AH at age 65 and was buried under the dome of his Uncle H. Hasan ibn ‘Ali (RA), grandfather and father in Jannatu‐l‐Baqi. Upon hearing the news of his martyrdom al Mansur wrote to the governor of Medina instructing him to go to the house of H. Ja’far ibn Muhammad on the pretext of expressing his condolences to the family, ask for the imams will and read it. Whoever was chosen as his inheritor and successor should be beheaded on the spot. The aim of al Mansur was to put and end to the lineage of H. Mahdi who would come from his bloodline. When the governor of Medina read the orders of the will he saw that H. Ja’far had name four people rather than one to administer his last will testament:
1. Al Mansur (the Khalif)
2. The governor of Medina
3. ‘Abdullah Aftar his (older son)
4. Musa (his younger son.) In this way al Mansur’s plot was spoiled. He passed the secret of the golden chain to his successor H. Tayfur Abu Yazid al Bistami (Beyazid al‐Bistami (RA). Al‐Mansur died on his way to Mecca to perform Hajj in 153 AH/775 CE. He was buried secretly for fear of being dug up by the Umayyads.
Musa ibn Ja’far ibn Muhammad (al Kazim)
The one restrained from anger
Musa ibn Muhammad (RA) was born in Abwa 128/745 CE AH and he maut in the prison of Sindi ibn Shahik on the 6th of Rajab in 183 AH/799 CE at 55 yrs. old. He was born during the reign of Marwan the 2nd the last Umayyad ruler of the Hejaz. His mother Hamidah Khatun (RA)was the wife and student of Ja’far as‐Sadiq of Zanjiyyah descent (east African). He was only 4 yrs. old when Abu Abbas as Saffah became Khalif. He lived throughout the ‘Abbasid periods of 10 remaining yrs. of Mansur, 10 yr. rule of Mahdi, 1yr and some months of al Hadi and 12 yrs. of Harun Rashid’s rule. During the period of al Mansur the sayyids suffered severely as mentioned earlier. Al Mansur also confiscated their property.
Historian ibn Khalikhan narrates:
“Khalif Mansur saw in his dream Ameerul Mu’mineen ‘Ali who was reciting a line from H. Qur’an:
“O Muhammad, ask them (o group of hypocrites), were you ready therefore, if you had been put in authority, to commit evil on earth and violate the ties of blood.” S 47: 22
Mansur sent for his favorite companion ibn Yunus at night and told him of his dream. He then said:
“Bring me Musa ibn Ja’far. H. Musa ibn Ja’far (RA) was brought all the way in from Medina to Baghdad. When he arrived Mansur embraced him and said to him: “Abu Hasan, I have just seen in a dream Ali ibn Abi Talib who was reciting this line from Qur’an. Give me your assurance you will not revolt against me or any of my children. H. Musa (RA) replied: “By Allah, I have no such intentions.”
The Khalif gave him one thousand dinars and restored him to his family in Medina.
Al Mansur died 158 AH/754 CE. Al Mahdi became the Caliph in 158 AH-169 AH and the famous historian ibn Khalikan:
“This prince has great talent as a singer and an able hand on musical instruments; he was also an agreeable companion at parties of pleasure.”
Al Mahdi sensed the treacherous policy his father had taken and tried to soothe the pain of the people. He released many of the Sayyid prisoners and returned the confiscated property. The property of H. Ja’far ibn Muhammad was returned to his son Musa ibn Ja’far. Al Mahdi’s fear of H. Musa’s strong personality was increasing. He knew very well how the masses would rally around Abu Talib’s descendants and he was worried that there would be an uprising against his rule. As a result he ordered the Medina governor to send Musa ibn Ja’far to Baghdad. He immediately threw him in prison. A strange thing occurred which caused al Mahdi to withdraw his decision and set Musa free. Al Mahdi in a dream saw Ameerul Mu’mineen H. ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib who was threatening him saying: “If you turn away, you are sure to make mischief in the land and cut off the ties of kinship.” Mahdi awoke seized with great panic he sent for Rabi’I his vizier and ordered H. Musa be set free. Al Mahdi would die in 169 AH/791 CE at the hands of one his concubines. Musa al Hadi was the 4th Abbasid Caliph who succeeded his father in 169 AH. /791 CE. He was born 147 AH/769 CE and died 170 AH. /792 CE. His short rule and life was marked with terror and bloodshed. Musa al Hadi adopted the policy of hatred towards Sayyids, the descendants of H. ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib and the sons of Abu Talib in general, He persecuted and harassed them.
“The ‘Abbasid Khalif al Hadi was pursuing the descendants of Abu Talib. He seriously threatened them, curtailing their stipends and grants and wrote to the governors of different regions to be harsh with them.”
Men recruited for this purpose was treated lavishly. Their duty was eliminating the leaders amongst the descendants of Nabi Muhammad (SM) by assassination or blunt murder for fear of their revolt and the love common people had for them.
These descendants could not endure this savageness no more and revolted under the leadership of Hussain ibn ‘Ali ibn Hasan ibn Hasan al Mathanna ibn ‘Ali ibn Abu Talib near a place called Fakh in 169 AH./791 CE This happened during H. Musa ibn Ja’far’s time. This historical revolution was identical to the event of Karbala in its prominence and tragedy. Fakh was perpetuated the same way Badr, Uhud and Karbala were immortalized. The great tragedy of Fakh was actually a repetition of Karbala and an echo of H. Hussain ibn ‘Ali. H. Zainab bint Ali ibn Abi Talib addressed the people of Kufa after she had witnessed the tragedy of Karbala surveying the battlefield examining the bodies of her slaughtered family with these words:
“Woe to you! Do you know how you torn the liver of Rasoolullah (saw)? Whom of his women folk you exposed? What blood of his you shed? What honor of his you defamed?”
History repeated itself, years after Karbala, Zainab bint ‘Abdullah ibn Hasan al Manthanna ibn Hasan ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, Mother of Hussain ibn ‘Ali of Fakh (RA), re-lived the same tragedy of her great aunt Zainab ibn Ali of Karbala. This women mourned her father, brother, husband, sons and cousins who were put to the sword by Abu Ja’far al Mansur some years earlier. Since that day she only wore callous hairy garments. From intense grief she would lament over their fate until she fainted. She would revile the Mansur and the ‘Abbasids. She raised Hussain ibn ‘Ali of Fakh to revolt against the corrupt ‘Abbasid government. The time had come for her son to hoist the flag of Jihad and martyrdom. Nabi Muhammad (SM) told his companions about the battle of Fakh. H. Muhammad al Baqir said:
“Nabi Muhammad (SM) once passed by Fakh. He dismounted and offered a two raka’at prayer. In the second rak’at his eyes welled with tears. When his companions saw him cry they cried. When they left that place he asked them. What made you cry? When we saw you crying we also cried, O Prophet of Allah, said the people. At the end of the first rak’at H. Gabriel (as) descended and said: “O Muhammad a man from your descendants will be murdered at this place. The divine reward for everyone who would be martyred with him shall be two‐fold.”
H. Zaid ibn ‘Ali ibn Hussain ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib (RA) said:
“Rasoolullah had performed the prayer at Fakh and said: “Right here a man from my own family will be killed along with a group of devout men. Their shrouds and perfume (which is ritually applied to the dead) shall be brought to them from Jannah. Their souls will outrun their bodies to Jannah.”
If Nabi Muhammad (SM) who did not physically witness this massacre was tragically grieved at this horrendous news, H. Musa ibn Ja’far (RA) must have been moved beyond description by the tragedy as it unfolded in front of him. H. Hussain ibn ‘Ali (of Fakh) declared war against the Musa ibn Muhammad al Hadi and the ‘Abbasids in Dhul Qa’da 169 AH/791 CE from the holy city of Medina near the tomb of Nabi Muhammad (SM). His revolt failed and he was killed in the vicinity of Makkah. H. Musa ibn Ja’far (RA) was sure in advance that the movement would be foiled but Hussein insisted on his plan. It is reported that H. Musa ibn Ja’far said to his cousin Hussein ibn ‘Ali of Fakh (RA):
“You will surely be killed so strike hard in battle, for those people are irreligious. They pretend to be faithful, but they hide their hypocrisy and disbelief. We are from Allah and unto Him we shall return. I seek Allah’s reward by your loss, O good people.”
He saw no other alternative to the uprising. He could no longer endure the brutalities done to Ahli‐Bayt. The incident of Fakh had a heavy impact on H. Musa ibn Ja’far’s’ life and mission. The day of Fakh is a terrible memory in the history of Ahlul‐Bayt. The heads of the martyrs was placed before Musa al Hadi. At that point he wars boiling with spite and the spirit of revenge. He resorted to threats, and swore that he would get rid of H. Musa ibn Ja’far. A good look at historical documents explains how the ‘Abbasid ruler, Musa al Hadi couldn’t overlook a certain fact. He knew full and well the real forces which dominated the social and political arena. He attributed Hussain ibn ‘Ali’s revolt to H. Musa ibn Ja’far in the same way Abbasid Khalif, Abu Ja’far al‐Mansur blamed Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah (Nafs‐Zakiyyah) revolt on H. Ja’far ibn Muhammad (as Sadiq), exactly the same way Umayyad Khalif Hisham blamed H. Zaid ibn ‘Ali’s revolt on Muhammad ibn ‘Ali (al Baqir), the same way Umayyad Khalif, Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan blamed the devastation done at Karbala on Hussein ibn Ali (RA). The following historical document says: “When the head of Hussein ibn ‘Ali, the leader of the well‐known uprising of Fakh was brought before Musa al Hadi and placed before him he recited these lines: O our cousins! Recite verse no longer after you have laid verse and rhyme to rest. We are by no means like those people whom you can appease, and easily convince with mere words, or the arbitration of a judge. Nay, the edge of the sword is hanging above you. We shall be satisfied as soon as the sword is satisfied. Should you say that we have done injustice, it is not so, we have gone to the wrong arbitrator. I am boundlessly upset by what the war has brought between us. O, our cousins, if that were and easy task.”
He then reviled the family of Abu Talib until he reached H. Musa ibn Ja’far whom he swore by Allah to kill. Abu Yousef (famous student of Imam Abu Hanifah) the qadi who was present, spoke well of him until Musa al Hadi calmed down. Musa al Hadi who perpetrated the crime blamed H. Musa ibn Ja’far and the survivors from the house of Abu Talib.
Another tradition states:
“The heads were brought before Hadi. Present were men from the families of H. Hasan ibn ‘Ali and Hussein ibn ‘Ali (RA). H. Musa ibn Ja’far (RA) was also present who was asked by Hadi about the heads. “Is this the head of Husayn ibn ‘Ali of Fakh?” “Yes replied Musa ibn Ja’far : “We belong to Allah and to Him we shall return. He died by Allah, a righteous Muslim, who kept fasting and enjoining good and forbidding evil. In this family he had no match.” The captives were taken to Hadi who ordered them to be executed. Not only did they shed blood of Ahlul Bayt unjustly, mutilate the bodies and kill the prisoners, but they, namely Umari ( a governor of Medina) razed the victim’s houses to the ground, confiscated their property set their orchards on fire. Then Umari who was in Medina at that time, got word of the outcome of the battle, he burnt down the house of Husayn of Fakh and the house of his family, confiscated their wealth and date‐palm orchards considering them as a part of the spoils of war traditionally set aside for the ruler.”
After putting an end to the revolt the Khalif, al Hadi began threatening H. Musa al Kazim and decided to capture and imprison him but Allah took his life before he could carry out his order on H. Musa ibn Ja’far. Here’s an account of this event, ‘Ali ibn Yaqin a close companion of H. Musa ibn Ja’far relates the story:
“Abu Hasan Musa ibn Ja’far was sitting with men from his own family when he was informed of Hadi’s decision concerning him. What do you think I should do? , asked Musa ibn Ja’far We think you should keep apart from him and avoid meeting him, for he is an evil man. Abu Hasan Musa ibn Ja’far smiled and said: “ Sukkayna claimed that she would defeat her Lord but The One who always defeats the heroes shall certainly prevail.” Then he raised his hands in prayer and said: “O, Lord how many a foe has sharpened the blade of his knife, honed the edge of his sword, prepared for me the fatalist of his poisons, who eye never slept always watching me, Seeing me unable to endure disasters and ward off the disastrous calamities, You turned all that away from me with Your power and might. You threw him in the hole he had dug for me, disappointed at not achieving what he had hoped for in this world, being distanced from what he wished for in the next world. For that I praise you as much as Y0U deserve.” “My Lord, punish him with Your might, weaken his strength with Your power, Keep him busy finding no way to achieve his ends and unable to do what he intends to. O Lord! Grant me a quick victory over him that would heal my anger and restore my right. O Lord! Accept my prayer and bring about the change I desire as a result of my complaint. Show him soon what you promised the unjust and show me what you promised as an answer to the prayer of the needy. Certainly you are the One whose Grace is infinite and favors are abundant.”
Ibn Yaqin said:
“Thereafter the people scattered. They gathered to read the letter of H. Musa ibn Ja’far informing him of the death of Hadi.”
Harun ibn Muhammad ar Rashid succeeded him. Rashid grew under the tutelage of Khalid al Barmaki, a convert from Buddhism. His family was known Buddhist monks in Persia from Balkh. This man was suspect in his understanding of Islam but he had a very large influence on Rashid. Harun became Khalif at the age of 21 yrs. old and was known for his life of luxury, drinking and womanizing. His rule is characterized to be much like the rule of Persian emperors of past years. Public funds/treasury was squandered Rashid, his family and the Barmaki family.
H. Musa ibn al Kazim (RA), members of Ahlul Bayt and even the common people lived in an atmosphere of terror and oppression. At any moment they could be imprisoned or made homeless. In 179 AH, Harun ar Rashid made Hajj and began to visit Medina and ordered the arrest of H. Musa ibn Ja’far (RA). H. Musa was arrested and sent to Basra whose governor was the old ‘Isa ibn Ja’far al Mansur. He stayed in prison for a year. Then H. Musa was sent to Baghdad whose governor was Fadl ibn Rabi’i in which he remained for a long time. After that he was sent to the murderer Sindi ibn Shahiq. Another example of Rashid’s burning hatred for Sayyids is that Fadl ibn Yahya al Barmaki , a close assistant of Harun Rashid stripped naked, beaten, insulted and cursed publicly on the orders of Harun ar Rashid because he provided some comfort for H. Musa ibn Ja’far while he was in prison.
Countless authorities of history have handed down an account of Rashid’s order to massacre members of H. ‘Ali’s progeny is fully described. It is said that when Yahya ibn Khalid al Barmaki arrived in Baghdad to lay plans for the assassination of H. Musa ibn Ja’far, the people were shocked by this mission and fear took hold of them.
“People were greatly troubled and they plunged into unbridled rumors.”
Then there is the confession of Hamid ibn Qahtabah who was ordered by Rashid to commit the massacre of imprisoned Sayyids. Rashid asked him about his loyalty to him to which Hamid answered that he was quite ready to carry out whatever task he might assign him. When Rashid felt Hamid was staunchly loyal and capable of doing what he wanted him to do, he ordered his servant to give him a sword a take him to a closed house in whose center there is a well. There are three big rooms in that house. When Hamid opened the door to the first room, he saw twenty men young, middle aged and old from the descendants of H. ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib and H. Fatimah bint H. Muhammad (SM). They were all in shackles and chains. Rashid’s servant ordered Hamid to kill them and throw their bodies into that well, which he did. Thus he did in the second and third room until he killed about sixty men from the descendants of H. Muhammad (SM). Historians have also recorded Muhammad ibn Umair al Azdi a close companion of H. Musa ibn Ja’far and a trustworthy and well known Sufi who was severely punished and imprisoned throughout the prisons of Rashid for 10 yrs. it was said about him:
“He was flogged 120 times with a piece of wood, in the days of Rashid and he was thrown in jail and not set free until he paid, from his own wealth 12,000 dirhams.”
It was at this time that descendants of Nabi Muhammad (SM) weren’t allowed to remain or settle in one place either relocation or constant imprisonment. As if this tyranny wasn’t enough even those who supported or associated with them were persecuted. Rashid ordered that H. Musa ibn Ja’far be given over to Fadl ibn Yahya:
“Who received him and locked him in one of his houses and post guards around the house. H. Musa ibn Ja’far busied himself in worship. He stayed up all night performing prayers and reciting H. Qur’an. During the day he was often fasting. He never averted his face away from his worshipping site.”
When Yahya conveyed the message to set H. Musa ibn Ja’far free Rashid rejected the offer which would have put him in a humiliating situation, as a wrongdoer. He said to Yahya:
“Tomorrow when we have knelt down before Allah, who will judge between us, you will know who the oppressor is and who has wronged the other. was sallam.”
Despite Rashid’s efforts to distort the truth and deceive public opinion he made the decision to assassinate H. Musa ibn Ja’far and end his blessed life. By any means possible Rashid tried to get rid of Musa ibn Ja’far that’s why ‘Isa ibn Abu Ja’far refused to kill him, asking Rashid to relieve him of his job. He was then transferred to Fadl ibn Rabi’I prison and he made such an impression on Fadl like ‘Isa refused to commit the crime. No one was left but his butcher the governor of Baghdad Sindi ibn Shahiq a vicious man, stone hearted and merciless. Yahya ibn Khalid talked the matter over with Rashid and assured him that Fadl ibn Rabi’I was an inexperienced young man. He himself offered to go to Baghdad. Rashid was most delighted and gave him permission. Arriving in Baghdad Yahya instantly held a meeting with Sindi ibn Shahiq during which he informed him of the plan in which he would depose of H. Musa ibn Ja’far. The latter accepted gratefully. According to plan H. Musa was given poison on a plate of dates. H. Musa partook from that food and felt the effects of the poisoning almost immediately. In spite of that these criminals were not satiated of their evil and malice. The body of H. Musa was left three days in prison. Then it was taken and laid on the bridge of Kharkh in Baghdad with a herald calling out to the people:
“This is Musa ibn Ja’far. He is dead. Come look at him.”
His blessed body remained on the bridge until the large crowd wrestled his pure body from the police. Then it was ritually washed, sprinkled with camphor and wrapped in a shroud. Baghdad had never witnessed a day like that one, nor had it suffered a tragedy like that. The procession made its way to the Quraysh cemetery in Kazimiyyah, Baghdad were his holy body was laid to rest.
‘Ali ibn Musa ibn Ja’far (Al-Riza)
The One Pleased With Allah Decree
‘Ali ibn Musa ibn Ja’far (RA) was born 148 AH in Medina one month after H. Ja’far ibn Muhammad had passed away. His father Musa was about 20 yrs. old. H. ‘Ali ibn Musa’s lineage comes from H. ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib and H. Abu Bakr through his father’s side and from a righteous mother by the name Umm Banin Bibi Najma at Tahir, Nubiah ( Northwest Africa, Sudan area). She was a very notable and distinguished lady of piety and wisdom of her day. She was purchased and freed by Bibi Hamida Khatun (wife of H. Ja’far ibn Muhammad). H. ‘Ali ibn Musa was born during the reign of Mansur and lived throughout the reign of 6 ‘Abbasid Khalifs: Mansur (brother of Saffah), Mahdi ibn Mansur, Hadi ibn Mahdi, Rashid ibn Mahdi, Amin ibn Rashid) and Ma’moon ibn Rashid. H. Musa ibn Ja’far (RA) could foresee that the hostile Abbasid ruler would not let him live in peace and circumstances would turn were his followers would not be able to see him or enquire from him prior to his maut. So while free and undisturbed in Medina he felt necessary to introduce Ali ibn Musa as his wasee. He assembled 17 prominent dignitaries from the descendants of H. Ali ibn Abi Talib (RA) and proclaimed that his son Ali ibn Musa would be his wasse. He also wrote his will in which 60 elders of Medina signed as witnesses. H. Ali ibn Musa (RA) was 35 when his father maut. In his childhood ‘Ali ibn Musa accompanied his father, H. Musa ibn Ja’far used to tell his friends often:
“Ali is my successor after me.”
Scholar Makhzumi said:
“One day Musa ibn Ja’far summoned and gathered us and said: “I invited you to be witnesses that this child (‘Ali ibn Musa) is my executor and successor.”
At this time descendants of H. ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib lived in an extreme atmosphere he added:
“What I said must remain restricted up to you and do not reproduce it to anybody unless you know he is one our friends and companions.”
Rashid disliked H. ‘Ali ibn Musa just as much as he did his father and forefathers. People of Medina were disallowed from visiting ‘Ali ibn Musa of learning from him. Harun attempted to kill him but was unsuccessful. Mansur had died when H. ‘Ali ibn Musa was 10 yrs. old. Tabari quoted H. ‘Ali ibn Musa ibn Ja’far in his Seerah:
“Father, can you tell me about Mansur, for I have heard many things about him?” H. Musa ibn Ja’far answered: “though Mansur was distantly related to Ahlul Bayt, when Banu ‘Abbas seized power and he became Khalif his rule became extremely hard on us. He dispatched many undercover agents especially in Medina for fear your grandfather H. Ja’far ibn Muhammad might call for an uprising against his throne. As a result the activity of the Ahlul Bayt University was curtailed noticeably. Mansur was a highly suspicious and untrusting man, but more so after he had heard of the discontent of the progeny of H. Hasan ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib. To silence any discontent Mansur incarcerated then murdered in the worst possible manner a large number of H. Hasan’s progeny, dispersing the rest of the family, which produced an upheaval in the area. That led to a revolt against him.”
In 168 AH. Mansur died. In 179 AH. H. ‘Ali ibn Musa was 30 yrs. old.
As reported by Scholar ibn Washa:
“The huge Kufa Masjid was occupied by numerous deputations gathering
to study under 900 scholars who were students of H. Ja’far as Sadiq who kept quoting him saying : as Sadiq said so and so.”
Yet with the prevailing atmosphere ‘Ali ibn Musa’s work along with his father had to be done in caution. The government was scared of them and did tolerate any challenge or opposition. H. Musa ibn Ja’far died in 189 AH in the Baghdad prison of Harun Rashid.
H. ‘Ali ibn Musa was 35 yrs. Old in 189 AH. After putting an end to H. Musa ibn Ja’far (RA), Harun ibn Rashid lived for ten more years. He had less tolerance for H. ‘Ali ibn Musa (RA) than he had for his revered father but he knew that his government had already lost face due to its prolonged maltreatment and eventual assassination of H. Musa ibn Ja’far. The period of H. ‘Ali ibn Musa coincided with the Khalifate of Harun and his sons Amin and Ma’mun. Harun was very antagonistic of the descendants of Nabi Muhammad (SM)through Ali (RA) and persisted maltreatment of most of them in Medina. The local governors who wished to please their ruler could not afford to be fair to Ahlul‐Bayt. People still could not visit them nor seek their knowledge openly.
At this time Ahlul‐Bayt could not teach openly, for the eyes of the agents of the Caliph focused unceasingly on the activities of Ahlul‐Bayt and their supporters. During Harun’s rule the descendants of H. Ali (RA) passed through a long period of time in trial and tribulation but H. Ali ibn Musa (RA) carried on administering the Divine Law of Shari’ah as taught by Nabi Muhammad (SM) and his descendants. After Harun’s death in 193 AH Ma’mun ibn Rashid fell into severe conflict with his brother Amin ibn Rashid. This led to a long period of bloody wars and eventually the assassination of Amin ibn Harun. Amin ibn Harun had an Arab mother and had the support of the Arabs from Hejaz, Egypt and Syria while the youngest brother Ma’mun ibn Harun had a Persian mother and the support of the Turks and Persians in Iran. This civil war lasted for about 5 yrs. and ended in 198 AH/ 820 CE. Amin became the Khalif after his father’s death. During his reign the government was severely weakened due to Amin’s corruption which afforded H. ‘Ali ibn Musa a considerable amount of time to preach some‐what openly.
Ma’mun ibn Harun became Khalif after his brothers’ assassination in 191 AH. His capital was in Tus, Iran. Up to his day the Abbasids policy of oppression, espionage and tyranny against its own people including the sacred family of Nabi Muhammad had been increasingly harsh and cruel. This led to countless revolts and many difficulties for the empire/regime. Many at this time felt that the Islamic empire had become more like the courts of the Persian Kings and Roman Empires known in the pages of history for such atrocities and who were more concerned with worldly rule. Ma’mun ibn Rashid devised a plan to end these difficulties which the 70 yrs. old policy of his Abbasid predecessors could not solve.
To accomplish this end, in 201 AH. /823 CE he chose H. ‘Ali ibn Musa to be his successor. He knew the Persians had a deep love for Ahlul‐Bayt. In order to put this plan into effect he had H. Ali ibn Musa (RA)relocate from Medina to Merv and even minted coins in H. ‘Ali ibn Musa’s name. H. ‘Ali ibn Musa left his wife and only son Muhammad ibn ‘Ali later known as Muhammad alJawad al‐Taqi in Medina. It was a long journey to Merv, Iran. This was the first Muharram in 201 AH that set the tradition, beginning in Persia were throngs of people throughout the Hejaz would make pilgrimage to the shrine of Imam Hussein. Just as H. Jabir ibn ’Abdullah , ’Ali ibn Hussein and remaining family members of Bani Hashim (RA) did over 150 yrs ago. This is the single most tradition that has frustrated empires/ regimes who fall under the moral scrutiny of the example of Nabi Muhammad (SM) even up to this very day. Once he arrived Ma’mun offered him the Khalifate and then succession to the Khalifate. In reality he wanted to boast of Ahlul‐Bayt being in support of his government to the people in order to make his rule acceptable.
In 202 AH/ 824 Ma’mun ibn Harun also forced H. ‘Ali ibn Musa (RA) to marry his daughter Umm Habibah. He did this and many other acts to enhance his apparent goodwill among the Persian people who had love for Bani Hashim. Ma’mun invited learned individuals to participate in religious and multicultural debates in his court. This afforded H. ‘Ali ibn Musa (RA)a great opportunity to expound the vastness of his knowledge in these large gatherings. This also increased his visibility and popularity which had previously been denied to his ancestors. Ma’mun ibn Harun would eventually consider this decision to be an error. The Abbasids of Baghdad were very unhappy at having a Sayyid among them as a declared successor. The love and attachment of the populace for H. ‘Ali ibn Musa included many scholars and government officials. The ‘Abbasid family decided to replace Ma’mun and rallied behind Ibrahim ibn Mahdi ibn Mansur. Ma’mun sought to remedy this problem and had H. ‘Ali ibn Musa poisoned. ‘Ali ibn Musa was poisoned through grapes in Tus on his way from Merv to Baghdad along with Ma’mun. ‘Ali ibn Musa arrived at the house of his old freeing Aba Salat and told him:
“Collect the carpets of the house and do not allow anyone to enter the house, as this is the time when my soul will depart and I want to die on the Earth like my grandfather Hussain ibn ‘Ali.”
Ma’mun stood next to his pillow which was head side. ‘Ali ibn Musa opened his eyes and said to him:
“Have good conduct with my son Muhammad Taqi for his death and yours are close to each other and do not have much distance between.”
He was buried in Tus, Iran, which is now called Mashhad. On the night of ‘Ali ibn Musa death he saw his grandfather Nabi Muhammad in a dream (SM) who said:
“Come to us tomorrow, what we have for you is better than the condition that you are in now.”
Muhammad ibn ‘Ali (Al Taqi Al Jawad)
Muhammad ibn ‘Ali (RA) was born in Medina Rajab 10 195 AH. He would maut in Baghdad, Iraq 29th Zeeqad 220 AH at 25 yrs of age. His mother was named Khaizuran (RA) also known as Sabika a woman from the family of Umm Mu’mineen H. Maria Qibtaya (RA). He was only 9 at time of his fathers murder. He was the shortest lived amongst these Imams. It had became an undeniable fact that his father being called from Medina to Tus in Iraq was a political game played by Ma’mun to get the sympathy and support of the Persians. Once this was achieved he had ‘Ali ibn Musa poisoned to get him out of his way. He returned to Baghdad victorious. He began a policy of reconciliation with ‘Abbasid elders and those who had inclinations or connection to Ahlul‐Bayt. Ma’mun would also continue the favors shown to Ahlul‐Bayt. Indeed he made it a political necessity that he did not alienate his Persian friends and supporters. Therefore he not only appointed prominent friends of Ahlul‐Bayt but he also showed particular favor publicly to the descendants of the deceased ’Ali ibn Musa.
One day when ‘Muhammad ibn ‘Ali was 9 yrs Ma’mun ibn Harun went hunting and Muhammad ibn ‘Ali was standing silently by the side of the road were some children were playing. Ma’mun entourage came that way. Seeing Mamouns entourage the children ran away but Muhammad ibn ’Ali remained standing at his place. Noticing this Ma’mun stopped his carriage and asked “Young man why didn’t you run away like the other children? Muhammad ibn ‘Ali replied calmly “Neither had I committed a crime, nor was I blocking the way.” Why should I run away or be afraid. I also know that you will not cause unnecessary trouble if you way is blocked. Ma’mun was surprised at this mature reply and asked him his name. Muhammad came the reply. Whose son are you asked Ma‘mun? Son of ’Ali ibn Musa. Ma’mun rode on. During his hunt his hawk returned to him with a fish in his beak. Ma’mun was surprised. He returned back to Baghdad were Muhammad ibn Ali was amongst the same group of kids who playing near ibn ’Ali. Ma’mun hid the fish in his palm and asked Muhammad ibn ’Ali tell me what is there in my fists. Muhammad ibn Ali replied “ Allah created clouds between sky and earth. The hawks of Kings sometime catch fish with its claws and bring it the kings. They hid it in there fist and asked a member of Ahlul‐Bayt “Tell me what is there in my fists? Ma’mun said truly you are the worthy son of Ali ibn Musa and took the young Muhammad ibn ’Ali with him and let him live in a nearby house next to the royal palace.
Ma’mun ibn Harun convened many conferences in which many intellectuals and scholars would attend to listen to the young Muhammad ibn ’Ali. There was anxiety to see this unequal match were a boy of 12 was to contest with the seasoned renowned Chief of Justice of the Abbasid Empire. Historians record that besides dignitaries and nobles, 900 seats were reserved for scholars alone. Ma’mun’s reign is described as the golden age for learning in the Islamic world. This famous contest between the young Muhammad ibn ’Ali and Yahya ibn Akhtam the scholar and Chief Justice for Abbasids has been recorded by many historians who wrote how at the commencement of this contest Ma’mun said :
“Did I not tell you that the people of Ahlul‐Bayt of Nabi Muhammad (SM) had been gifted with special knowledge, none could even cope with the children of this elevated house.”
The excitement of this gathering was so great, that everyone present unanimously exclaimed Ma’mun’s guess was correct and that Muhammad ibn ’Ali was a matchless person. It was there and then Ma’mun would marry his own daughter Umm Fadl to Muhammad ibn ‘Ali. It is reported that Muhammad ibn ‘Ali recited the marriage Khutbah. This address became so famous that this Khutbah has been recited at weddings everywhere throughout the Islamic world ever since. Overjoyed at this occasion Ma’mun displayed full generosity, giving away millions to the poor.
According to Yaqubi he states : “Ma’mun bestowed upon the bride and groom 1,ooo dirham’s and said “ Surely I would like to be a grandfather in the line of The Messenger of Allah (saw) and ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib (RA).
Many thought that the new relationship I.e his becoming the son in law to the most influential monarch of his time, must influence his pattern of life and change his manners altogether. It may noted here and it has become quit clear that spiritualism which was the chief characteristic of the blessed household of Nabi Muhammad (SM) has always stood against worldly rulers. Neither Umayyads, Abbasids or any corrupt regime could escape this fact. These regimes and all other corrupt regimes past and present have always been at war with the moral standards set by this blessed house. Muhammad ibn ‘Ali refused to stay in the royal palace and instead lived in a small house and continued the ethics of a simple and humble life‐style. After a year Ma’mun realized that Muhammad ibn ‘Ali was not happy with staying in Baghdad so he allowed the couple to live in Medina. On Muhammad ibn ‘Ali’s return to Medina he maintained his ancestral unimposing behavior, no body‐guards, no pomp, no restrictions on who could meet him and no discrimination what so ever. All those who visited Medina saw the successor of H. Ja’far Sadiq (RA) seated on the same mat, instructing gathering towards piety and patience. Muhammad ibn ‘Ali imposed the same restrictions on Umm Fadl as his ancestors had done in the case of their wives. He did not care much about the fact that Umm Fadl was a princess. Although she lived with him, he married another lady who was a descendant of H. Ammar ibn Yasir (RA). Allah continued the line of Muhammad ibn ‘Ali through this union and she gave birth to Ali Naqi. Ma’mun m. 218 AH, 833 AD as long as he lived no harm could come to Muhammad ibn ‘Ali. Ma’mun ibn Harun was succeeded by his brother Mu’tasim ibn Harun. His niece began to write him complaining more than she did during the reign of her father because Ma’mun always rejected her complaints. But Mutasim ibn Harun was very jealous of Muhammad ibn ‘Ali from the outset. He had before opposed the marriage of Umm Fadl to him. He took these complaints as a chance to finally settle his differences in this matter. Muhammad ibn ‘Ali fame as a scholar and his fame for his renown noble character annoyed Mutasim.
It is a well known fact that H. Muhammad ibn ‘Ali gave all this money to the poor instead of spending it on himself. His wife Umm Fadl daughter of the Ma’mun did not like this at all and complained to her father this. Ma’mun was very familiar with the ways of Ahlul‐Bayt rejected her complaints and ordered her to behave like the wife of an Imam from Ahlul‐Bayt. The failure of his political tactics intensified his resentment. All these factors irritated him into enmity. It was in the 2nd year of his reign he summoned Muhammad ibn ‘Ali from Medina to Baghdad ordering his governor in Medina expressly about it. Muhammad ibn ‘Ali was compelled like his great ancestors were compelled to set out leaving his son ‘Ali ibn Muhammad (Naqi) with his mother in Medina. The first year after Muhammad ibn ‘Ali’s arrival Mutasim ibn Harun didn’t do anything. He was hoping Muhammad ibn ‘Ali would conform to the royal way of living and this would be a source of embarrassment for Ahlul‐Bayt. But when his popularity increased through mannerism and example, Mutasim had to act in order to stop this and resorted to the same silent weapon all his ancestors used, poison to eliminate this thorn in his heart. He was buried along side his grandfather Musa ibn Ja’far. Because these two Sayyid were known for their suppression of anger that their burial site is called Khazimain ‐ two Khazims ‐ the two enduring ones. His descendants today are called Razavi Sayyids.
‘Ali Ibn Muhammad’ (Ali Hadi, Al Naqi)
Ali Ibn Muhammad was born 214 AH in Subra, a suburb of Medina which was built under the instructions of his great grandfather Musa ibn Ja’far. He was born when his father was 19 yrs. Old. Ali ibn Muhammad’s lineage came from Ahlul‐Bayt on one hand and from a righteous mother and blessed Lady. His Mother’s name was H. Samaanah who was progeny of H. Ammar ibn Yasir the well known Sahaaba of Nabi Muhammad (SM) and Shaheed under the banner of H. ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib in the battle of Siffeen. From 4‐10 yrs old His father frequenting the Mosque of Nabi Muhammad (SM) for prayer and Ibadah (worship) left a deep impression on him. His father was assassinated when Ali ibn Muhammad was 10 yrs old. Mutasim then ordered Umar ibn Faraj al Rukhtani As‐Sijistnai (One of the Abbasid official secretaries who had purchased land for the founding of Samarra) to find a teacher in Medina that would teach this young boy and mislead him. He found a man named al‐Junaydi who immediately set to work. However he would often give reports of the young boys intelligence and give him perspectives on literature he hadn’t thought of. Ali ibn Muhammad provided an comprehensive understanding and explanation of Holy Qur’an. al‐Junaydi eventually concluded that Ali ibn Muhammad’s intelligence at 10 yrs could only be from divine causes and dropped what ever animosity he had with the descendants of H. Fatimah Zahra bint Nabi Muhammad (SM).
Mu’tasim ibn Harun maut in 842 when Ali ibn Muhammad was in his 20’s At Tabari reported:
“His regular doctor had died the previous year and the new physician did not the normal treatment which was the cause of the Khalif illness and eventually his death.”
He was succeeded by his son Wathiq ibn Mu‘tasim. During this period Ali ibn Muhammad continued in peace to utilized Masjidul Nabi (SM) as the place to teach people about knowledge, principles and morals derived from Islam. Due to his adab people were loyal to him in Medina. Wathiq ibn Mu’tasim would maut from high fever after reigning for 5 yrs. His brother Mu’tawakkil ibn Mu’tasim would take the throne in 847 in Samarra. The wali of Medina Abdullah ibn Muhammad despised Ali ibn Muhammad and reported to Mu’tawakkil that Ali ibn Muhammad was plotting a revolt. When Ali ibn Muhammad learned of this he immediately sent a letter reassuring Mu’tawakkil that he had no such intentions and that in reality Abdullah ibn Muhammad harboring hatred for Ahlul Bayt. Mu’tawakkil responded with a letter of his own stating that he deposed of the wali and that he should come to Sammarra so that the Khalif could protect him. Mu’tawakkil ordered Yahya ibn Harthama to go to Medina and investigate Abdullah’s claims and bring Ali ibn Muhammad to Samarra. Ali ibn Muhammad knew that the meaning behind this letter was to banish him from Medina. He also knew if he rejected the invitation he would be forcibly removed, which was a situation he wished to avoid. Yahya searched the house and found only copies of Qur’an. Yahya forced Ali ibn Muhammad and his family to leave Medina towards Samarra. There caravan stopped in Baghdad, were Yahya visited the governor Ishaaq ibn Ibrahim ad Dahiri. The two talked and the governor warned Yahya that if he were to say anything about Ali ibn Muhammad that was negative, Mu’tawakkil would have him killed and the blame would be on Yahya’s shoulders for the maut of a member of Ahlul Bayt on the day of Judgment. After arriving in Samarra Yahya met Mu’tawakkil and only spoke good things about Ali ibn Muhammad and that he didn’t find anything to support Abdullah’s claims. Mu’tawakkil dropped his animosity towards Ali ibn Muhammad and even met with him. Even though he had no legitimate issue with Ali ibn Muhammad he still suggested he stay in Samarra and placed him under house arrest.
While under house arrest Mu’tawakkil maintained a peculiar relationship with Abdullah ibn Muhammad. Mu’tawakkil trusted and turned to Ali ibn Muhammad for jurisprudence and legal predicaments though he still held resentment toward Ali ibn Muhammad. On one occasion, Mu’tawakkil organized a conference to be held in his palace. He asked ibn Sakkit to ask Ali ibn Muhammad a question he thought he couldn’t answer so Mu’tawakkil could embarrass and defame Ali ibn Muhammad before the conference of ‘Ulama and Fuqaha. Not only did Ali ibn Muhammad answer ibn Sakkit’s questions but he also answer the question that Yahya ibn Akhtam had been told to prepare as back up. Despite ibn Sakkit being bold enough to take on this task he was killed by Mutawakkil when the latter asked him:
“Are my sons more respectable than Hasan and Hussein?” to which ibn Sakkit replied “ Ameerul Mumineen Ali’s slave Qambar is more respectable than both your sons!”
Mu’tawakkil had his tongue cut out on the spot causing his death. In addition to this attempt to humiliate Ali ibn Muhammad he began to implement severe penalties to anyone found to be giving Ali ibn Muhammad and his family gifts, money or even obtaining Islamic knowledge from them. Despite living under house arrest he was arrested on several occasions on suspicion of revolt. Each time he was cleared of the charges. Now Ali ibn Muhammad was in his 30’s and Mu’tawakkil ibn Mu’tasim had been persecuting Ahlul Bayt and their supporters for many years. This Tyranny culminated with the order and destruction of the shrines of Karbala and Najaf, ploughed the area in order to flood it with the Euphrates water. Mu’tawakkil ibn Mu’tasim grew tired of how the masses preached about Ali ibn Muhammad sublime character and morals. Along with certain Shi’a groups who constantly promulgated how Ali ibn Muhammad and previous descendants of H. Fatimah Zahra was more worthy of the Khalifate. Mutawakkil at this point ordered several non Muslims to murder Ali ibn Muhammad. After explaining what he wanted done, several palace guards arrive with Ali ibn Muhammad when Mu’tawakkil saw him he began to reflect on his order and became shaken and afraid for his afterlife. He immediately embraced Ali ibn Muhammad calling him Sayyidi i.e. my master, and kissed him on the forehead. Mu’tawakkils actions confused the men and they refrained from killing Ali ibn Muhammad. He gave up killing Ali ibn Muhammad and resorted to humiliation again.
It has been recorded on one occasion Mu’tawakkil ordered Ali ibn Muhammad along with officials and notables (so it would look like the order wasn’t only for him) to travel on foot during a very hot summer while he rode upon his horse. After almost suffering a heat stroke Ali ibn Muhammad recited the following Quranic ayah:
“Enjoy yourself in your abode for three days, that is a promise not to be belied.”
This act of savagery provoked Ali ibn Muhammad to foretell his death because within three days of that event plotters (Turkish assassins) assassinated Mutawakkil in 250AH / 861, one of the assassins was actually his son Muntasir. Muntasir ibn Mu’tawakkil along with his Turkish faction came smoothly to the throne. He revoked the tyrannical rulings of his father which brought about a sigh of relief for the Muslim empire after having withstood 14 yrs of tyranny. He also favored the descendants of H. Ali by reinstituting the Ziyarat i.e. the visitation to Karbala and Najaf, returning the Awqaff (trust) to Bani Talib, he also
returned the Fadak to the progeny of Hasan and Hussein and stopped campaigns and harassment against Shi’a communities. It was at this period that Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim al Nishaapuri was busy in their work verifying the authenticity of the circulating hadiths. It was also during this period that the As’ Habul Hadith suppressed the Muta’zilite until their movement eventually died down. It was during this period i.e. the first half of his life his teachings was unhampered and continued at and high rate but Muntasirs’ reign only lasted for less than half a year ending with his maut from unknown causes in 862. Many suspicion the Turks murdered him for fear he might end their domination over the Islamic Empire. Muntasir did not appoint any successor. The Turkish chiefs held a council to select a successor and they would have nothing to do with Mu’tazz ibn Mu’tasim or his children so they selected a grandchild of Mu’tasim from another son. The Arabs were displeased with the decision but would soon found out that the Khalifate no longer depended on the Arabian choice but had passed on to the Turkish power. Musta’een ( a grandson of Mu’tasim from another son) was enthroned but within 4 yrs he was beheaded by his cousin Mu‘tazz. However it would be worthy here to note that is was during his reign that the Abbasids’ long pursuit of a blessed personality from Ahlul Bayt came to a bloody end.
In 850 CE Mutawakkil ibn Harun brought Yahy ibn Umar from one of the Abbasid provinces in order to punish him after he had allegedly conspired against Abbasid and arranged supporters. Umar ibn Faraj al Rukhkhhaj al Sijistani flogged him 18 lashes and imprisoned him in Baghdad in the Matbaq prison before being released. Yahya ibn Umar was a great grandchild of H. Husayn of Karbala on his fathers side and from H. Ja’far ibn Abi Talib on his mothers side. He was virtually boycotted and treated as an conspirator which caused untold hardship on H. Yahya and his family. This left him hard pressed by his creditors. It is recorded that he sought a grant from Umar ibn Faraj who harshly denied him Yahya ibn Umar then cursed Umar which got him imprisoned but was later set free. He then moved to Baghdad but was still suffering from hardship. He then moved to Samarra but found himself in the same situation and sought a grand again but was harshly denied. Then Yahya appeared in Kufa in 864 CE were he rebelled throngs of Bedouins including a contingent of Kufa rallied around Yahya. They encamped in Fallujah, Iraq in a village known as al Umud. He captured the treasury and openly declared his revolt. He liberated the prisons of Kufa. He then left Kufa for its agricultural land in Bustan were he was met with Zaydis (those who followed his great grandfather Zaid ibn Ali) and Bedouins living near by his following great proportionately. Yahya ibn Umar routed the first Abbasid force sent to kill him. In 864 CE his followers especially the people of Kufa urged him to go out of Kufa to fight which been avoided as much as possible up to this point. Yahya ibn Umar launched a fierce attack but in the heat of the battle his followers lost will and literally abandoned Yahya to a small contingent. His supporters were cut down, Yahya was beheaded and his head and body mutilated. His head was sent to Musta’in who displayed it at the public gate in Samarra, Baghdad.
It is recorded that shortly after this event Musta’een was put to death his assassin carrying Musta’eens’ head to the Khalif cried “Here, behold your cousins head”, “Lay it aside answered the heartless Mu’tazz who was playing chess “till I have finished the game” After he was satisfied that it was indeed Musta’een head he ordered 500 gold pieces be given to the assassin as the reward. Mu’tazz ibn Mu’tasim had been placed on the throne by the Turks at 19 yrs old. Mutazz was literally surrounded by people who were ready for plot or treachery for or against the Khalif. After putting the former Khalif to death Mu’tazz ibn Mu’tasim also put his two brothers to death, one of them was the heir to the throne. Throughout this entire period Ali ibn Muhammad was left to his work in Medina but was still kept under close observation. Soon Mutazz ibn Mu’tasim had Ali ibn Muhammad put on house arrest and had him brought from Medina to Sammarra. Ali ibn Muhammad would build a house in Samarra and never returned to Medina. Due to his extended stay there and the lack of interference by the regime cause unhindered progress for Ahlul Bayt. It wouldn’t be long before his popularity and character would cause scholars and seekers from all over the Islamic world to visit him and learn from him in Samarra. This alarmed Mutazz ibn Mu’tasim so much so that he decided to end Ali ibn Muhammad’s life. He ordered his couriers to mix his food with poison in which they did. Ali ibn would soon maut after eating the poisonous food at 40 yrs old. It had been recorded that during his funeral was attended by his only son Hasan al Askari who led the funeral prayer arranged his burial, laying him to rest in his house. His direct descendants are called Naqavi. They primarily reside in Pakistan while a small minority live in India.
Hasan Ibn Ali (Al Askari)
Citizen of a garrison town or Man with a huge army
Hasan ibn Ali (RA) was born in Medina 232 AH. Hasan ibn Ali was the second son born to Ali ibn Muhammad by the name Muhammad who had pre deceased him. His mother was a bondwoman from An Nawbah named H. Saleel. He had two other siblings Husayn and Aaliyah. Hasan and Husayn sons of Ali ibn Muhammad were given the Kunya ie nickname as Sibtayn named after their great grand parents H. Hasan and H. Hussein Sibtu Rasoolullah (SM). Hasan ibn Ali would spent almost his entire life under house arrest in Samarra in Baghdad. Hasan ibn Ali continued to live under house arrest under the reign of Mu’tazz, Muhtadi ibn Wathiq, Mu’tamid ibn Mutawakkil until his death. (note that though these Khalif were merely puppets for the Turks and in business with the Khazari Turks Muhtadi ibn Wathiq was the most pious and in every way tried to mimic H. Umar Abdul Aziz.) As for the Askari name one narration states he was named such because he spent all his life in a garrison town. While another tradition states :
“Once the Khalif called Hasan ibn Ali to his palace and ordered his army to march pass them in order to impress or dissuade him from revolt. When the march was over Hasan ibn Ali asked the Khalif to look between his two fingers. When the Khalif looked he saw a huge army of lancers and swordsmen who were much greater in number marching pass. He was astonished at this miracle and name him al Askari.
His life from childhood to adult hood was spent in the very house his father was buried in located in Samarra Baghdad. He was kept under house arrest but despite this close guard he still taught people and instructed his followers to the true teachings of Islam. He even wrote or virtually instructed a Tafsir of the Quran which has been mentioned by may historians not without controversy. However, even while living under house arrest he was taken to Baghdad from time to time, questioned and put in prison there. On one such occasion, Hasan ibn Ali was taken by the Turkish guard to Baghdad were he was kept in prison during the reign of Muhtadi ibn wathiq (who after a major conspiracy was assassinated by the Turkish guard in 250 AH at 38yrs old ) and then Mu’tamid ibn Mutawakkil (his oldest surviving son) afterwards who ruled for 22 yrs. While he was prisoner in Baghdad there was severe drought. Rain had not fallen for some time and crops were drying up. People were facing famine. A Christian priest raised his hands in prayer and rain fell.
The Khalif became concerned that this would cause the people to forsake Islam and become Christian. Hasan ibn Ali told the Khalif that when the people assembled for the so called miracle performed by the Christian priest, he would remove their doubts. Hasan ibn Ali was allowed to leave the prison to go were the crowd had assembled to see the miracle performed by the priest. Hasan ibn Ali stood there with the crowd and when the priest raised his hand rain began to fall Hasan ibn Ali told one of his companions to seize the hands of the priest and bring the peace of bone that was hidden in his hands. When this bone was brought before Hasan ibn Ali he said that it was the bone of a Nabi. It was in fact this very bone when raised in prayer that brought the rain to the land out of Allah’s mercy. The doubts was removed. Hasan ibn Ali then spread his prayer mat and performed 2rakats of prayer then lifted his bare hands in prayer for rains to come to the land and wipe out the drought. Allah answered Hasan ibn Ali’s prayer so much so that the land became fertile and crops began to grow. As a reward the Khalif allowed Hasan ibn Ali to leave the prison in Baghdad and return to his home in Samarra. He was still kept under house arrest and was not allowed to go to Medina.
Hasan ibn Ali lived a short life he only live 28 yrs and endured many hardships. In spite of the fact that Hasan ibn Ali had never given any cause for concern to the Khalifs of his time, The Abbasid envy and jealousy in this matter was so great that they couldn’t leave these pious personalities in peace . If these regimes had no fear for the throne then they were afraid of the excellent knowledge and morals exemplified by Ahlul Bayt. In the case of Hasan ibn Ali the same type of jealousy led to the poisoning of Hasan ibn Ali to end his life. A life whose only activity was to teach Islam as Nabi Muhammad (SM) and his blessed ancestors did before him.
It was 280 AH when Mu’tamid ibn Mutawakkil ordered the poison to be mixed in his fruit and given to him. He was buried next to his father in the same house located in Samarra. With the passage of time that blessed home became into a great mausoleum and pilgrims from all over the Islamic lands came to pay their homage to the two descendants of H. Fatimah Zahra bint Nabi Muhammad (SM).
Friends of Iblish Khalif Al Mamun & Associate in Crime AL FARGHANI
Chief Astrological and Astronomical Advisor along & With So-Called Sahih Bukhari Hadith Writer Imam Abu Abdullah Al-Bukhari
Brief Biography of Khalifa Al-Mamun:
In 802 Harun al‐Rashid father of al‐Ma’mun and al‐Amin ordered that al‐Amin succeed him and al‐Ma’mun serve as governor of Khurasan and as caliph after the death of al‐ Amin. Al‐Ma’mun was reportedly the older of the two brothers, but his mother was a Persian woman while al‐Amin’s mother was a member of the reigning Abbasid family. After al‐Rashid’s death in 809, the relationship between the two brothers deteriorated. In response to al‐Ma’mun’s moves toward independence, al‐Amin declared his own son Musa to be his heir. This violation of al‐Rashid’s testament led to a civil war in which al‐Ma’mun’s newly recruited Khurasani troops, led by Tahir bin Husain, defeated al‐Amin’s armies and laid siege to Baghdad. In 813, al‐Amin was beheaded and al‐Ma’mun self proclaimed caliph throughout the empire.
Internal Strife When & How Al-Mamun Murdered Islam’s Imams
There were disturbances in Iraq during the first several years of al‐Ma’mun’s reign, while the caliph was in Merv. On November 13, 815 Muhammad Jafar claimed the Caliphate for himself in Mecca. He was defeated and he quickly abdicated asserting that he’d only become caliph on news that al‐Ma’mun had died. Lawless in Baghdad led to the formation of neighborhood watches. When in A.H. 201 (817 CE) al‐ Ma’mun named Imam Reza the Seventh descendant of Muhammad (SM) his heir, this was not accepted by people in Baghdad. This was a political move by al‐Ma’mun since most of Persia was sympathetic to the Hashemites. Al‐Ma’mun’s opponents in Baghdad gave allegiance to Ibrahim ibn al‐Mahdi. His forces fought Kharijites, al‐ Ma’mun’s and arrested the neighborhood watch commander Sahl ibn Salamah.
Imam Reza informed al‐Ma’mun of happenings in Baghdad and al‐Ma’mun set out for the City of Peace on the day the fast ended, April 12, 818. At Tus he stopped to visit his father’s grave. On the last day of Safar in 203 AH, al‐Ma’mun poisoned Imam Reza through grapes in Toos. Imam Reza was buried beside the caliph’s grave. Following the death of Imam Reza a great revolt took place in Khurasan, Persia. Al‐Ma’mun wept and mourn for Imam Reza and tried to show himself innocent of the crime. But for all he did, he could not get himself acquitted and prove his innocence. Al‐Ma’mun wrote to Hasan ibn Sahl, his governor in Iraq, the Hijaz, etc. informing him of his grief on the Imam’s death. The governor fell ill and al‐Ma’mun appointed Dinar ibn Abdallah to replace him. Some of Ibn al‐Mahdi’s commanders deserted him, and he died.
Wars with Byzantine Romans
Theophilos wrote to Al‐Ma’mun. The Caliph replied that he carefully considered the Byzantine ruler’s letter, noticed it blended suggestions of peace and trade with threats of war and offered Theophilos the options of acknowledging divine unity, paying tax or fighting. Al‐Ma’mun made preparations for a major campaign and died on the way while leading an expedition in Sardis.
Al‐Ma’mun’s relations with the Byzantine Romans is marked by his efforts in the translation of Greek philosophy and science. Al‐Ma’mun gathered scholars of many religions at Baghdad, whom he treated magnificently and with tolerance. He sent an emissary to the Byzantine Empire to collect the most famous manuscripts there, and had them translated into Arabic. It is said that, victorious over the Byzantine Emperor, Al‐Ma’mun made a condition of peace be that the emperor hand over of a copy of the “Almagest”. Point should be noted that, this was the time when Al-Mamun gathered all the Hadith writer like Bukhari, Tirmidhi, Nesayee, Ibn Mazah, Muslim and Abu Dawuds etc.
Al‐Ma’mun conducted, in the plains of Mesopotamia, two a astronomical operations intended to determine the value of a terrestrial degree. Almanon crater, on the Moon, has been named in recognition of this caliph’s contributions to astronomy.
The mihna, or ‘ordeal,’ is comparable to Medieval European inquisitions only in the sense that it involved imprisonment, a religious test, and a loyalty oath. The casualties of Abbasid inquisition would not approach a fraction of those executed in Europe under similar circumstances. In the effort to centralize power and test the loyalty of his subjects, al‐Ma’mun required elites, scholars, judges and other government officials to undergo the test, which was a series of questions relating to his own theology and faith. The penalty for failing the mihna could include death.
The So called ulema that Al Mamun captured and appointed them as teachers at the major Islamic law schools became YAZIDI ISLAM (present day) as a religion of legalism from the view point of AlMamun. Doctrinal differences between Sunni and Shi’a Islam began to become more pronounced. Ibn Hanbal, the founder of the Hanbali legal school, became famous for his opposition to AlMamun. Al‐Ma’mun’s simultaneous opposition and patronage of intellectuals led to the emergence of important dialogues on both secular and religious affairs, and the Bayt al‐Hikma became an important center of translation for Greek and other ancient texts into Arabic. This Islamic renaissance spurred the rediscovery of Hellenism and ensured the survival of these texts into the European renaissance.
Al‐Ma’mun, in an attempt to win over the Shi’a Muslims to his camp, named the eighth Imam, Ali ar‐Rida, his successor, if he should outlive al‐Ma’mun. Most Shi’ites realized, however, that ar ‐Rida was too old to survive him and saw al‐Ma’mun’s g esture as empty; indeed, ar‐Rida died. The incident served to further alienate the Shi’ites from the Abbasids, who had already been promised and denied the Caliphate by al‐’Abbas. Later Ma’mun, fearing an uprising, had Ali Ar‐Rida poisoned.
The Abbasid empire grew somewhat during the reign of al‐Ma’mun because of his ideology to ignore Holy Quran by inventing his own mythology of Islam by inventing Hadith by the active cooperation of Bukhari, Authentic Hadith, Abu-Dawud, Ibn Mazah and others.
One Day Al‐Ma’mun was sitting on the river bank telling those with him how splendid the water was. He asked what would go best with this water and was told a specific kind of fresh dates. Noticing supplies arriving, he asked someone check whether such dates were included. As they were, he invited those with him to enjoy the water with these dates. All who did this fell ill. Others recovered. He encouraged his successor to continue his policies. Al‐Ma’mun died near Tarsus and the city’s major mosque contains a tomb reported to be his. He was succeeded by his half‐brother, al‐Mu’tasim.
So Called Imam, The Notorious Bukhari (194 ‐256) Hijri
In 1996, His Eminency Dr. Alam Has visited the So-Called Hadith Writer, with the Religious Minister of Iraq, Iran, Libya, Kuwait, Jordan and Russian so-called Religious Leader Zia Uddin Baba Khan His Eminency also Proclaimed Soviet Russia would be divided & All Muslims would be free
His Early Years
So‐Called Imam Abû `Abdullâh Muhammad ibn Ismâ`îl al‐Bukhârî was born on the 13th of the Islâmic month of Shawwâl, 194AH, in the famous city of Bukhara, of the land “beyond the canal” ‐ present day Uzbekistan ‐. The father of Bukhârî, Ismâ`îl ibn Ibrâhîm ibn Mughîrah al‐Ja`fî, During infancy his father passed away and his mother took on the entire responsibility of bringing him up. Bukhârî was by born blind. He had recourse to many famous and skilled doctors of his time but their treatments made no difference. His mother cried out for help in the court of Allâh the Almighty, for her child and begged for the restoration of his eyesight also security of her bastard child Bukhari. At last, “the river of mercy flowed over her,” and Almighty Allâh accepted her invocation and restored the sight of her son because Every mother’s prayer are accepted, even the Almighty accepts prayer, if the mother is a prostitute. This is the Will of God in accordance of Quran.
It is very painful to state that, the prophet Mohammad (SM) the founder of Islam, when he started his new religion in Holy City Makkah by the order of Almighty God, God of Abraham, Mosas and Jesus as well as the God of Devils, Prophet’s family members, cousin brothers and close relative like Umayya, Abu Zahel, Abu Lahab, Abu‐ Sufiyan, Henda (Wife of Abu Sufiyan), Mughira Ibn Hesham, Moawaiya ibn Abu Sufiyan, Yazid Ibn Mowaiya as true follower of devil by the influence of fanatic Jews and Christains had been trying to destroy the back bone of new religion “Islam”.(In Accordance of Holy Quran, Sura Kalam, those who criticize directly or Indirectly to Prophet Mohammad (SM), he is a Bastard in accordance of Holy Quran. (Sura Kalam, Chapter Mughira Verse 1‐16).
Anybody criticizes the Holy prophet like Walid Ibn Mughira, The Almighty God declared in the Quran Surah Al‐Qalam (Verse 1 to 16) that, “if anyone criticizes Prophet and his mission is a Bastard along with nine other bad characteristics”, in accordance of Surah Al‐Qalam. Mughira was one of the most influential leader of Holy City Mekkah. Mughira and his followers main function everyday was to loot and rob merchandise and properties also abuse women of pilgrims those who use to come to Mekkah for pilgrimiage in accordance of Quran Surah Quresh. There are two Surahs such as Surah Al‐Qalam and Al‐Quresh to explain about Mughira and his followers Punishment from Almighty Allah as well as to message to correct theirself. Resembling Walid Ibn Mughira the enemies of Islam and Prophet Mohammad (SM) are as follows: Abu Lahab, Abu Jahel, Ummaiya, Abu Sufiyan, Henda, Muawiya, Yazid Ibn Muawiya, Marwan, Abbasiya and Ummaiya Dynasty’s so‐called Islamic Rulers Al‐ Mamun EXCEPT Umar Ibn Abdul Aziz. It may be mentioned here, the cunning Jews and Christians had made a long term conspiracy to eliminate Islam after the battle of Jonge Ahzab in Madina and immediate after Prophet’s expiration from Earth to Heaven.
Primary Education and Interest in Hadîth
When Bukhârî reached the age of ten and after acquiring his elementary education, Almighty Allâh inserted the interest in the science of Ahadîth into his heart and he obtained admission in the Hadîth class of Bukhara. He obtained his educations after vigorous study. A year later, he had such a good retention of the text and chains of transmission of Ahâdîth, that sometimes teachers got their corrections from him. Please note that these are false proclaimed and fabricated information to misguide the universal truth and literate / Knowledgeable / intellectuals. All the of the above mentioned proclamation of Bukhari as well as Abu Huraira are all false, fabricated cock and bull story.
How it is possible at ten years old blind bastard dare to teach their teacher, it is the camouflaging game of the Abbassiya ruler Al‐Mamun to upgrade the Bukhari’s status for his personal use to strengthen his position of self proclaimed Khelafath. Al‐ Mamun had killed several direct descendants of Prophet Mohammad (SM) such as Imam Muslim, Imam Reza and Imam Hanbal. He imported the bastard Bukhari, when he was exiled by the Government of Uzbeksitan Territory.
Point to be noted here, Whom actually gave him his proclaimed knowledge? The author of this book stated that as follows, Bukhari was born in Uzbekstan as blind. His so called father died but he was a bustard child given birth by his Mother even she faced awkard situation with this child, she cried and cried every moment for safety and security of the child and open his eyes. Finally, almighty God accepted her prayer, at the age of sixteen, he was no more blind cured by his mother’s prayer. People had asked this child, “who was your father?” again he falsely proclaimed his father’s name and he created chaos and complexity around the city where he was born. Finally the Ruler of Uzjbekistan deported Bukhari along with his mother from Uzbekistan but he managed to reach Baghdad. Bukhari’s cunning behavior and malpractice ideology again got him thrown out from Baghdad city. A Arabian robber bought him to Holy City Mekkah. When this was taking place the present day Abbassiya emperor was Al‐ Mamun (198 – 0218 A.H.). A merchant from Syria bought him from Mekkah in exchange of 5 Dinar as a slave for personal use but later sold for 7 dinar to the Abbassiya Ruler’s counsel members, whom later placed him to the self proclaimed Seventh Khalif Al‐Mamun. By this time Abbassiya Khaliph Al‐Mamun took the interest upon him by the influence of his astrological adviser Al‐Farghani to write and complile hadith such as Bukhari, Abu Dauwd, At‐Authentic Hadith, An‐Nasa’I, Ibn Majah in the name of so‐called “Seha‐Sitta”. Among all few hadithes are bogous and non‐authentic, false fabricated and groundless. Even though they have used some prominent ideal person like Imam Hanbal, Imam Malik, Prophet’s second wife teen aged Ayesha even though she didn’t know the criminals have used her name for false hadith.
All the hadith written and compiled after 195 years of Prophet Mohammad (SM) expiration.
Another number one criminal Jews, Abu Huraira Munafek Muslim friend of Mowaiya and his associates. He had given thousands and thousands of False statement to prepare Bukhari’s false Hadith book named “Shohi Bukhari”
His False Proclamation of Memory
The false proclamation made by the Abbassyia Rulers after 195 years of the holy departure of Hazrat Mohammad (SM) founder of Islam. Enemy of the Prophet family members made an long term conspiracy to compile and write the hadiths by the Non‐ Arab cunning pick-pocketer like Bukhari, Abu Dawud, Tirmizi and other so called hadith compiler. The Imam Muslim was one the Prophet’s direct discendent, When he became one the most renown scholar in Quran and Hadith, even at that time there was no Arab Scholar from Madina or Mekkah to complie the real Hadith. The Situation of Prophet’s discendents were not allowed to peacefully live in Mekkah or Madina. Because He found out about the Abbassiya rulers conspiracy to compile many false Hadith book such as the compiler name, Bastard and blind Bukhari, Tirmizi compiled by another cheater Sammael Tirmizi, Abu‐Dawud compiled by Mr. Abu Dawud, Nassae by Ibn Nessae, Ibn Majah and Muslim compiled by Imam Muslim whom was mentally upset and angry at near Madina Mosque, he arranged one room and sat their with his writing tools, food for one month (dry dates) also water supply along with animal skin. At first He did not sleep for first seven days, by very hardship he examined the Bukhari’s false Hadith book as well as the so‐called real book which was named “Sohi Bukhari Sharif”.
Imam Muslim, as Islamic Scholar an inhabitant of Madina studied in Egypt and Parsia to acquire vast knowledge of Quran and Hadith, He immediately rejected all the Bukhari’s compilation of so called Bukhari Sharif and started compiling his own authentic Hadith book, but he did succeed to write a single page. He was killed by the Abbassiya Ruler Al‐Mamun. Please note that currently, the Muslim Sharif was not written compiled by Imam Muslim. All of the Prophet’s descendants escaped from Madina and Mekka towards Indonesia, Malaysia, Syria, India, Pakistan, Burma, Sudan, China, Afghanistan, Shemarkand Bukhara, Uzbekistan, Taskan, Turkey, Iraq and other Muslim territories.
Bukhârî was a man of devil attitude also a friend of Iblis. Bukhari’s false proclaimation about his early period of acquired knowledge of memorized seventy thousand Ahâdîth and later in his life, this figure reached three hundred thousand. Of these, one hundred thousand were sahîh (rigorously authenticated) and two hundred thousand were not sahîh (hasan, da`îf, etc).
Please note that, in accordance of Bukhari’s proclamation at the age of 21, he was a slave of Al‐Mamun Seventh Khalifh of Abbassiya Dynasty. He proclaimed that, when he was correctly compiling the hadith for the authentication “before starting to compile each hadith, at first he took full shower for his self purification, secondly he took Odhu/ablution and than he prayed two Rakat Nofol prayer for his protection finally to establish connection with Prophet Mohammad (SM) spiritually his final step was to meditate 3 to 4 hours to compile each hadith by the approval of Prophet thru his spiritual connection. It should noted that, he authenticated on the above mentioned process app. 9,000 Hadith out of 600,000 Hadith.
We have a question now,
how many years did slave Bukhari was alive?
At which age did he start compiling?
At the age of 21
At which age did he finish his research, compilation and authentication of Hadith? About 15 years from the time he started compiling the hadith at the age of 36.
Bukhari had presented the so‐called “Shohi Bukhari” to Khalifa Al‐Mamun with the direct influence of the devils and cooperation by the fanatic Jews and Christian authority concerns.
If you can think with Your general common sense, with mathematics knowledge please come forward and have your own theory of explanation. According to Bukhari from 600,000 false hadith, which was compiled by him and again corrected from them 240,000 correct hadith book name “Shohi Bukhari”.
Suppose it takes 4 hours to correct ONE hadith, Now my concern is, how can he correct app. 9,000 hadith from 600,000 within 15 years or to till he lived? Even if he were an angel he could not have finished the compilation of the Hadith in 15 years or his lifetime of 62 years because he was thrown out by the half brother Mutasim Billah the Eighth Khaliph of Abbassiya Dynasty. Mutassem Billah had understood Bukhari’s camouflaging game and he recalled him to his court along with Al‐Mamun’s chief astrological adviser Al‐Farghani also immediately ordered the chief justice to exile them to their own countries within seven days.
If they did not obey the Khalifh’s order, they shall be killed if they were found anywhere in Baghdad. Accordingly, Bukhari at the age 36 escaped from Baghdad towards Mekkah secretly and he never gave his real identity to anyone. He was also attacked by many incurable diseases like Leprosia, kidney, heart again blindness. By this time his mother had passed away, now there were no one to pray for him, even no women had accepted him as husband because all the diseases. His face had become ugly even the devil was scared of him because his contribution is more than the Devil (Iblis)’s contribution against Islam.
Finally, a Uzbekistan group of Hajjis introduced and caught him and askd for his identification. There were literate middle age and old age pilgrims, some of them had known about Bukhari and they cordially invite him to return back to his home land Uzbekistan. He understood that the correct government will withdraw his detention order in exchange of big amount of money thru the pilgrims. Finally, at the age of 47 he returned back to his mother land with blindness and other incurable diseases. He spent last 15 years of his life with very hardship and sufferings of many diseases which led him to Jahannam at the age of 62. His grave is at Bukhara, Uzbekistan getting burnt day by day by the hell fire. Al‐
Politically the position was less rosy. Al‐Ma’mun was unable to recruit sufficient forces to replace the old ‘Abbasid army that had been destroyed in the civil war, and he became increasingly dependent on his younger brother, Abu Ishaq, who had gathered a small but highly efficient force of Turkish mercenaries, many of them slaves or ex‐ slaves from Central Asia. When al‐Ma’mun died in 833, Abu Ishaq, under the title of al‐ Mu’tasim, succeeded him without difficulty. Al‐Mu’tasim was no intellectual but rather an effective soldier and administrator. His reign marks the introduction into Iraq of an alien, usually Turkish, military class, which was to dominate the political life of the country for centuries to come. From this time Iraqi Arabs were rarely employed in military positions, though they continued to be influential in the civil administration.